Ornithology Test 1: birds of the world

Card Set Information

Author:
tresa
ID:
295956
Filename:
Ornithology Test 1: birds of the world
Updated:
2015-02-15 23:30:21
Tags:
Tresa
Folders:

Description:
Bird species
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user tresa on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Struthioniformes
    • ostrich
    •  ethiopian (Africa)
    •  very large, ground-dwelling, flightless
    •  strong runners (up to 40+ mph)
    •  eat succulent plants, berries, seeds,
    •   some small vertebrates
    •  ♂♂ incubate eggs only at night;
    •   ♀♀ incubate day or night
  2. Casuariiformes
    • cassowary, emu
    •  australasian
    •  large, ground-dwelling, flightless
    •  cassowaries are forest dwellers;
    •   eat fruits and invertebrates
    •  ♂ cassowaries incubate eggs
    •   and care for young
    •  emus live in open, arid country;
    •   eat vegetation and some fruits
    •  ♂ emus incubate; both sexes
    •   care for young
  3. Apterygiformes
    • kiwis
    •  australasian (endemic to New Zealand; all endangered)
    •  small, ground-dwelling, flightless
    •  live in humid forests; nocturnal
    •  eat invertebrates, seeds, crayfish, some fruit
    •  produce extremely large eggs
    •   relative to body size
    •  ♂♂ incubate eggs; both sexes
    •   care for young
  4. Tinamiformes
    • tinamous
    •  neotropical
    •  ground-dwelling, poor flyers
    •  crepuscular
    •  eat fruits, seeds, insects
    •  lay glossy blue or green eggs
  5. Rheiformes
    • rheas
    •  neotropical (South America)
    •  large, ground-dwelling, flightless
    •  eat grass roots, seeds, insects, molluscs
    •  20-30 eggs laid in common nest
    • by several ♀♀; incubation and
    • care of young by ♂♂
  6. Anseriformes
    • ducks, geese, swans
    •  cosmopolitan (aquatic)
    •  densely covered with down feathers
    •  palmate feet
    •  characteristic bill with sieve-like lamellae
    •  most species migratory; strong fliers
  7. Galliformes
    • fowl: grouse, quails, pheasants, and allies
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  can fly, but prefer to walk and run
    •  large, muscular gizzard to process seeds,
    •   tough plant material
    •  large clutches of eggs
  8. Podicipediformes
    • grebes
    • cosmopolitan (aquatic)
    •  lobate toes
    •  legs placed posteriorly; adapted for efficient diving
    •  feed on freshwater insects and crustaceans
    •  many have elaborate courtship  rituals
  9. Phoenicopteriformes
    • flamingos
    •  pantropical (aquatic)
    •  often stand on one leg – reason unknown
    •  bill adapted for filter-feeding on brine shrimp and blue-green algae
    •  congregate in massive colonies
  10. Eurypigiformes
    • sunbittern and kagu
    •  neotropical (sunbittern) and
    •   New Caledonia (kagu)
    •  forage for insects on ground
    •   in forest understory and along streams
  11. Caprimulgiformes
    • goatsuckers, nightjars, and allies
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  nocturnal or crepuscular
    •  very wide, gaping mouths; adapted to capture insects on the wing
    •  small, weak feet
    •  do not build a nest
  12. Apodiformes
    • swifts, hummingbirds)
    •  cosmopolitan (swifts) and North and South
    •    America (hummingbirds)
    •  very short humerus; tiny, very weak feet
    •  extremely maneuverable in flight
    •  swifts: wide mouth to capture insects on the wing
    •  hummingbirds: sip nectar
  13. Phaethontiformes
    • tropicbirds
    •  pantropical (pelagic)
    •  small, weak legs and feet
    •  feed on fish at ocean surface
    •  generally solitary, but breed in colonies
  14. Pteroclidiformes
    • sandgrouse
    •  Africa, Middle East, Southern Asia
    •  ground-dwelling
    •  inhabit treeless, open, dry country
    •  primarily consume seeds
  15. Columbiformes
    • pigeons, doves
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  muscular gizzard for grinding up
    •   seeds and fruit
    •  enlarged crop for storing food;
    • produce ‘milk’ for nestlings
    •  loosely attached feathers
  16. Opisthocomiformes
    • hoatzin
    •  neotropical
    •  chicks possess claws on their wings
    •  feeds primarily on leaves
    • enlarged crop for bacterial fermentation of vegetable matter
  17. Musophagiformes
    • turacos and allies
    •  African partly zygodactyl feet (4th toe forward or back)
    •  primarily arboreal, but weak fliers
    •  feed on mostly on fruits, but also arthropods and molluscs
    • turacos have unique pigments
  18. Gaviiformes
    • loons
    •  holarctic (aquatic)
    •  legs placed posteriorly;  adapted for efficient diving
    •  palmate feet
    •  feed on fish
  19. Ciconiiformes
    • storks
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  primarily wading birds, but frequent drier areas
    •  stout bills; feed on small vertebrates,
    •   arthropods, annelids
    •  frequently soar on thermals
  20. Pelicaniformes
    • pelicans, herons, ibises, egrets, and allies)
    •  cosmopolitan (aquatic)
    •  evolutionary relationships unclear
    •  pelicans have gular pouch to capture fish
    •  ibises probe mud for invertebrate prey
    •  herons and egrets capture fish and aquatic
    • arthropods
  21. Balaenicipitiformes
    • shoebill
    •  African
    •  inhabits freshwater marshes
    •  exceptionally large feet to walk on
    •   floating vegetation
    •  massive, shoe-shaped bill used to capture fish, frogs, and snakes
  22. Suliformes
    • comorants, boobies,
    • gannets, frigatebirds, and allies)
    •  cosmopolitan, coastal
    •  strong fliers
    •  totipalmate feet
    •  feed on fish by either diving from surface or the air
    •  breed in colonies
  23. Sphenisciformes
    • penguins
    •  antarctic and southern ocean distribution (pelagic)
    •  flightless, but retain keeled sternum
    •  wings modified into flippers
    •  palmate feet
    •  dense feathers, continuous over entire skin
    • surface
    •  feed on fish
  24. Procellariiformes
    • petrels, albatrosses, shearwaters, and allies)
    •  cosmopolitan (pelagic)
    •  palmate feet
    •  hooked bill used to catch fish, squid, krill
    •  tubular nasal passages used for olfaction
    •  drink seawater; excrete salt via nasal glands
    •  breed colonially on remote islands
  25. Cuculiformes
    • cuckoos
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  zygodactyl feet (2 & 3 forward, 1 & 4
    • back)
    •  typically long tails
    •  mostly arboreal, some terrestrial
    •  feed on arthropods and small vertebrates
    •  Old World cuckoos are brood parasites
  26. Gruiformes
    • coots, rails, cranes, limpkin, bustards, and allies
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  typically inhabit wet, marshy habitats;
    •   bustards in dry, open areas
    •  diverse forms; united by distinct skeletal features
    •  omnivorous diet
  27. Charadriiformes
    • shorebirds, gulls, terns, auks, and allies
    •  cosmopolitan (inland and coastal aquatic)
    •  diverse forms; united by distinct
    • skeletal features
    •  shorebirds probe mud for invertebrates
    •  gulls/terns catch fish from surface water
    •  auks catch fish underwater
  28. Coliiformes
    • mousebirds
    •  African
    •  zygodactyl foot, but all four toes can point
    • forward
    •  hairlike body feathers
    •  arboreal; scurry through leaves like rodents
    •  feed on berries and flowerbuds
  29. Strigiformes
    • owls
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  mostly arboreal
    •  hooked bill; claws modified into talons
    •  nocturnal birds of prey
    •  unique facial disk and ear arrangement
    •  silent fliers; mechanism unknown
  30. Accipitriformes
    • hawks, eagles, kites, vultures, and allies)
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  inhabit open country to dense forest
    •  hooked bill; claws modified into talons
    •  diurnal birds of prey or scavengers (vultures)
  31. Trogoniformes
    • trogons, quetzals
    •  pantropical (except Australia)
    •  arboreal; inhabit tropical forests
    •  short, broad bill for eating fruit
    •  short legs, weak feet
    •  heterodactyl foot (toes 3 & 4 forward, 1 & 2 back)
  32. Upupiformes
    • hoopoes, wood hoopoes
    •  African
    • + 1 sp. in southern Eurasia
    •  inhabit open woodland, savannah, thornbrush
    •  arboreal
    •  strong decurved bill
    • adapted to probe for insects
    • in bark and rotten wood
  33. Coraciiformes
    • kingfishers, rollers, bee-eaters, motmots, and allies)
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  inhabit wide variety of habitats (diverse
    • diets)
    •  syndactyl foot (toes 2 and 3 partially
    • fused)
    •  typically nest in cavities (tree, termite nests, stream banks)
  34. Piciformes
    • woodpeckers, toucans, honeyguides, puffbirds, and allies)
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  arboreal (diet ranges from insects
    •   to fruit to small vertebrates)
    •  zygodactyl foot
    •  all nest in tree cavities
  35. Falconiformes
    • falcons, caracaras
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  inhabit open country to dense forest
    •  hooked bill; presence of ‘tooth’ on
    •   sides of maxilla
    •  claws modified into talons
    •  diurnal birds of prey
  36. Psittaciformes
    • parrots, macaws, lories, cockatoos, and allies
    •  pantropical
    •  hooked maxilla adapted for shredding fruit;
    • also consume seeds, nuts, flower buds
    •  fleshy cere at base of maxilla
    •  zygodactyl feet
    •  gregarious; nest in tree cavities
  37. Passeriformes
    • perching birds
    •  anisodactyl foot (toes 1, 2, 3 forward, 4
    • back)
    •   with large hallux (toe 4)
    •  extremely diverse: more than half of all bird species

    • Suborder Tyranni (suboscines)
    •  mostly Neotropical
    •  weak syringeal musculature; simple, innate songs

    • Suborder Passeri (oscines)
    •  cosmopolitan
    •  strong syringeal
    • musculature; complex, learned songs

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview