A&P2 QUIZ 1 - ENDOCRINE; 20150218 1257

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thom.mccusker@gmail.com
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295958
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A&P2 QUIZ 1 - ENDOCRINE; 20150218 1257
Updated:
2015-02-18 12:59:18
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ENDOCRINE
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A&P2
Description:
A&P2 QUIZ 1 - ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
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  1. ENDOCRINE ORGANS
    • 1. PITUITARY GLAND
    • 2. THYROID GLAND
    • 3. PARATHYROID GLANDS
    • 4. ADRENAL GLANDS
    • 5. GONADS
    • 6. PINEAL GLAND
    • 7. PANCREAS
    • 8. THYMUS
  2. PITUITARY GLAND
    • "MASTER ENDOCRINE ORGAN" - NOT!
    • PEA-SIZED STRUCTURE LOCATED AT BASE OF BRAIN. JUST BELOW HYPOTHALAMUS & ATTACHED TO IT
  3. THYROID GLAND
    • UPPER THROAT
    • PRODUCES THYROID HOMONES T3 + T4 WH/ CONTROL METABOLISM & METABOLIC RATE
    • ALSO PRODUCES CALCITONIN WH/ DECREASES CA++ (ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT ON PARATHYROID HORMONE "PTH"
  4. PARATHYROID GLANDS
    • POSTERIOR LOBES OF THYROID GLAND
    • PRODUCES PARATHYROID HORMONE "PTH"
    • PTH INCREASES CA++
    • (CHEMODETECTORS SENSE LOW CA++ & PARATHYROID GLANDS TURN ON TO PRODUCE PTH)
  5. ADRENAL GLANDS
    • AT TOP OF EACH KIDNEY
    • PRODUCE
    • 1. MINERAL CORTICOIDS
    • 2. ALDOSTERONE
    • 3. GLUCOCORTICOIDS
  6. TELL ME SOMETHING ABOUT MINERAL CORTICOIDS & ALDOSTERONE.
    THEY ARE PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL GLANDS & REGULATE LEVELS OF NA++ - WORK W/ ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES
  7. TELL ME SOMETHING ABOUT GLUCOCORTICOIDS.
    • PRODUCED IN ADRENAL CORTEX OF THE ADRENAL GLANDS.
    • INCREASE OR DECREASE WHEN BODY IS UNDER STRESS
  8. GONADS
    • PELVIC AREA
    • * TESTOSTERONE (TESTES 2)
    • * ESTROGEN + PROGESTERONE (OVARIES 2)
  9. PINEAL GLAND
    • HEAD - DEVELOPS FROM ROOF OF DIENCEPHALON
    • INNERVATED BY HORMONE MSH CAUSING
    • SECRETION MELATONIN
    • PROPER LEVELS OF MELATONIN NEEDED TO REGULATE OUR DAY/NIGHT CYCLE
    • LACK OF SUN LIGHT A LOT OF MELATONIN PRODUCED RESULTING INITIATION OF SLEEP CYCLE
  10. PANCREAS
    ENDOCRINE + EXOCRINE (DIGESTION)
  11. PANCREAS ENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    • ISLET CELLS IN ISLETS OF LANGORHANS
    • 1. ALPHA CELLS -> GUCAGON
    • 2. BETA CELLS -> INSULIN
  12. THYMUS
    • CHEST AREA. PRODUCE THYMOPOIETIN
    • VERY IMPORTANT TO MATURATION OF T CELLS WH/ ARE IMPORTANT TO FIGHTING VIRUSES
  13. SOMETHING SPECIAL ABOUT THE PARATHYROID, PANCREAS & THYMUS
    THEY ARE NOT UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE PITUITARY. NOT IN THE ENDOCRINE HYPOTHALAMUS LOOP. NOT IN THE NEGATIVE FEEDBACK/POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP.
  14. HYPOTHALAMUS
    • CONTROLS PITUITARY GLAND
    • BELOW THE THALAMUS JUST ABOVE THE BRAIN STEM - VERY CLOSE TO THE PITUITARY GLAND
    • PRODUCES & SECRETES MANY RELEASING HORMONES THAT TURN ON CERTAIN SECRETARY CELLS FOUND IN THE PITUITARY (MOSTLY IN ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY)
  15. HYPOTHALMUS RELEASING HORMONES (produced in HYPOTHALAMUS)
    • 1. GONADOTROPHIC RELEASING HORMONE (GNRH)
    • 2. THYROID RELEASING HORMONE (TRH)
    • 3. CORTIOTOTROPHIC RELEASING HORMONE (CRH)
    • 4. PROLACTIN RELEASING HORMONE (PIH/PRH)
    • 5. SOMATOTROPHIC RELEASING HORMONE (RH... GHRH/GHIH)
  16. INFUNDIBULAM
    • STALK CONNECTING HYPOTHALAMUS TO PITUITARY
    • CONTAINS ATRERIOLES & VENULES
    • ROUTE OF RELEASING HORMONES FROM HYPOTHALAMUS TO PITUITARY ANTERIOR LOBE
  17. HYPORPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM
    • ARTERIOLES & VENULES THAT PASS THROUGH THE INFUNDIBULUM TO THE PITUITARY ANTERIOR LOBE
    • CARRY IN O2/NUTRIENTS
    • CARRY OUT CO2/WASTE & DELIVER RELEASING HORMONES TO THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  18. WHAT TWO SECRETORY CELLS REQUIRE AN INHIBITING HORMONE TO STOP PRODUCTION AND WHAT ARE THE INHIBITING HORMONES?
    • 1. SOMATOTROPHS (GHIH - GROWTH HORMONE INHIBITING HORMONE)
    • 2. LACTOTROPHS (PIH - PROLACTIN INHIBITING HORMONE)
  19. GENERAL 2 PARTS OF THE PITUITARY
    ANTERIOR LOBE & POSTERIOR
  20. ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
    • ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY
    • CONTAINS IMBEDDED SECRETORY CELLS
  21. NEUROPHYPHYSIS
    • POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY
    • STORES HORMONES OXYTOCIN & ADH WH/ ARE SYNTHESIZED BY HYPOTHALAMUS & TRAVEL TO POSTERIOR LOBE VIA INFUNDIBULUMS NERUONAL CONNECTION (NOT PORTAL)
  22. ADENOHYPOPHYSIS SECRETORY CELLS
    • 1. THYROTROPHS
    • 2. LACTOTROPHS
    • 3. SOMATOTROPHS
    • 4. GONADOTROPHS
    • 5. CORTICOTROPHS
  23. BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PITUITARY LOBE & POSTERIOR LOBE?
    ANTERIOR LOBE SECRETES HORMONES & POSTERIOR LOBE ONLY STORES HORMONES
  24. WHAT ARE THE 2 CELLS FOUND IN THE THYROID GLAND AND WHAT ARE THEIR GENERAL FUNCTION?
    THE 2 CELLS FOUND IN THE THYROID GLAND ARE FOLLICULAR CELLS AND PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS. THEIR PRIMARY FUNCTION IS CONTROL METABOLISM & METABOLIC RATE.
  25. THYROID RELEASING HORMONE (TRH)
    • TURNS ON THYROTROPHS
    • THYROTROPHS PRODUCE THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)
    • TARGET ORGAN... THYROID GLAND
  26. CORTICOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE (CRH)
    • TURNS ON CORTICOTROPHS
    • CORTIOTROPHS PRODUCE ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE(ACTH)
    • TARGET ORGAN... ADRENAL GLAND
    • ALSO PRODUCE MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE(MSH)
    • TARGET ORGAN... PINEAL GLAND
  27. SOMATOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE (GROWH HORMONES GHRH OR GHIH)
    • TURNS ON SOMATOTROPHS... PRODUCE GROWTH HORMONE
    • NEGATIVE LOOP - TOO MUCH GROWTH HORMONE TURNS OFF GHRH & TURNS ON GHIH
  28. GONADOTROPHIC RELEASING HORMONE (GNRH)
    • TURNS ON GONADOTROPHS
    • GONADOTROPHS PRODUCE FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) & LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH)
    • TARGET ORGAN... GONADS (END TARGET TESTES/OVARIES)
  29. PROLACTIN INHIBITING HORMONE (PIH) OR PROLACTIN RELEASING HORMONE (PRH)
    • MAMMARY GLANDS/BREASTS - LACTATION
    • IF WE HAVE A NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOK & WANT TO TURN OFF PRH THEN PIH IS PRODUCED. IT WILL BLOCK PROLACTIN - MOTHER STOPS FEEDING- PIH COMING IN TURNING OFF LACTOTROPHS - MILD DRYING UP - TURNS OFF THE LACTOTROPHS
  30. HYPOTHALAMUS DETECTS LOW LEVELS OF MINERALOCORTICOIDS OR GLUCOCORTICOIDS (IE ALDOSTERONE)
    • 1. HYPOTHALAMUS SECRETE/RELEASE CORTICOTROPH RELEASING HORMONE(CRH)
    • 2. CORTICOTROPHS SECRETE/RELEASE ACTH INTO GENERAL CIRCULATION
    • 3. ADRENAL GLAND(CORTEX) SECRETE/RELEASE MINERALOCORTICOIDS / GLUCOCORTICOIDS INTO GENERAL CIRCULATION
    • 4. WHEN HYPOTHALAMUS DETECTS PROPER LEVEL OF MINERALOCORTICOIDS OR GLUCOCORTICOIDS IT STOPS SECRETING/RELEASING CORTICOTROPH RELEASING HORMONE(CRH)
    • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
  31. WHAT DO THE CORTICOTROPHS PRODUCE?
    ACTH & MSH
  32. HYPOTHALAMUS DETECTS LOW LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE
    • 1. HYPOTHALAMUS SECRETE/RELEASE GNRH
    • 2. GONADOTROPHS SECRETE/RELEASE FSH & LH INTO GENERAL CIRCULATION
    • 3. GONADS/TESTES TARGETING THE LEYDIG CELLS IN THE TESTES SECRETE/RELEASE TESTOSTERONE INTO GENERAL CIRCULATION
    • 4. WHEN HYPOTHALAMUS DETECTS PROPER LEVEL OF TESTOSTERONE IT STOPS SECRETING/RELEASING GNRH
    • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
  33. LOW LEVELS OF SPERM CELL COUNT DETECTED
    • 1. HYPOTHALAMUS SECRETE/RELEASE GNRH
    • 2. GONADOTROPHS SECRETE/RELEASE FSH & LH INTO GENERAL CIRCULATION
    • 3. STERTOLI CELLS & SUSTENTICULAR CELLS W/IN SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES TO PROVIDE CONDITION CONDUCIVE TO SPERM PRODUCTION
    • 4. SPERM COUNT GOES UP  HYPOTHALAMUS STOPS SECRETING/RELEASING GNRH
    • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
  34. ENDOCRINE PATHWAY (NEGATIVE LOOP?)
    • 1. HYPOTHALAMUS DETECT/SECRETE/RELEASE
    • 2. PITUITARY (ADENOHYPOPHYSIS) CONTAINS SECRETORY CELLS
    • 3. SECRETORY CELLS (PRODUCE HORMONE)
    • 4. TARGET ENDOCRINE ORGAN
    • 5. TARGET ENDOCRINE ORGAN HORMONE
    • 6. DESIRED EFFECT OF TARGET ENDOCRINE ORGAN HORMONE
    • RETURN TO HOMEOSTASIS
  35. HYPOTHALAMUS DETECTS LOW LEVELS OF T3/T4
    • 1. HYPOTHALAMUS SECRETE/RELEASE TRH
    • 2. THYROTROPHS SECRETE/RELEASE TSH INTO GENERAL CIRCULATION
    • 3. THYROID GLAND SECRETE/RELEASE T3/T4 INTO GENERAL CIRCULATION
    • 4. WHEN HYPOTHALAMUS DETECTS PROPER LEVEL OF T3/T4 IT STOPS SECRETING/RELEASING TRH
    • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
  36. SEXUAL HORMONES
    WHAT IS THE MAJOR EFFECTS OF TESTOSTERONE, ESTROGEN & PROGESTERONE?
    MAINTAIN THE PROPER SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALES & FEMALES.
  37. WHAT HORMONE IS IMPORTANT IN THE PRODUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE?
    GLUTEINIZING HORMONE
  38. LEYDIG CELLS
    SECRETORY CELLS IN TESTES THAT PRODUCE TESTOSTERONE
  39. CHEMORECEPTORS DETECT LOW CA++ IN THE BLOOD
    • 1. PARATHYROID GLAND CHIEF/PRINCIPAL CELLS SECRETE/RELEASE PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH)
    • 2. PTH CAUSES BONES TO RELEASE STORED CA++ & ALSO CAUSES BODY NOT TO EXCRETE AS MUCH CA++ IN THE URINE
    • 3. CHEMORECEPTORS DETECT CA++ HOMEOSTASIS PARATHYROID GLAND STOPS SECRETE/RELEASE OF PTH
  40. CHEMORECEPTORS DETECT HIGH CA++ IN THE BLOOD
    • 1. THYROID GLAND PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS SECRETE/RELEASE CALCITONIN
    • 2. CALCITONIN CAUSES BONES TO STOP RELEASING STORED CA++
    • 3. CHEMORECEPTORS DETECT CA++ HOMEOSTASIS THYROID GLAND STOPS SECRETE/RELEASE OF CALCITONIN
  41. 2 SECTIONS OF THE ADRENAL GLAND
    • 1. CORTEX
    • 2. MEDULLA
  42. ADRENAL CORTEX LAYERS
    • 1. ZONA GLOMERULOSA (OUTSIDE LAYER)
    • 2. ZONA FASCICULATA (MIDDLE LAYER)
    • 3. ZONA RETICULARIS (INNER LAYER - BORDERS MEDULLA)
  43. WHAT HORMONE STIMULATES ADRENAL CORTEX
    ACTH - ADRENAL CORTICOTROPIC HORMONE WH/ IS PRODUCED BY THE CORTIOTROPHS
  44. TROPIC HORMONE
    HORMONE THAT STIMULATES ANOTHER ENDOCRINE GLAND (ALL OF THE HORMONES IN THE PITUITARY)
  45. ADRENAL MEDULLA
    • UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • PRODUCES EPINEPHRINE & NOREPINEPHRINE
  46. ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES PRODUCED
    • 1. MINERAL CORTICOIDS
    • 2. ALDOSTERONE
    • 3. GLUCOCORTICOIDS
    • 4. CORTISOL
    • 5. GONADOCORTICOIDS
  47. OXYPHIL CELLS
    NONSECRETORY CELLS IN THE PARATHYROID THAT ARE SUPPORTIVE OF PROPER ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FOR THE PARATHYROID GLAND
  48. SECRETORY CELLS THAT LAY IN DENSE CLUSTERS IN THE PINEAL GLAND
    PINEAL OCYTES
  49. THYMUS
    • PRODUCES THYMOPOIETIN WH/ IS USED IN OUR IMMUNE RESPONSE - T HELPER CELLS & TC CELLS 
    • NOT UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE PITUITARY
  50. SOMATOTROPHIC HORMONE
    TARGETS SPECIFIC BODY CELLS TO ATTAIN DESIRED EFFECT (SEX HORMONES, ANABOLIC...)
  51. HORMONES ARE...
    CHEMICAL MESSENGERS
  52. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM VS NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • ENDOCRINE SLOWER RESPONSE W/ LONG DURATION
    • NERVOUS RAPID RESPONSE W/ SHORT DURATION
  53. STEROID HORMONES BY FUNCTION
    • LIPID SOLUBLE - EASILY PASS THROUGH CELL MEMBRANE, INTO CYTOPLASM & INTO NUCLEAR MEMBRANE/NUCLEUS
    • CHANGE THE GENETIC EXPRESSION BY CHANGE DNA -> CHANGE PROTEIN PROTEIN THAT'S BEING BUILT (tRNA... mRNA... CYTOPLASM... RIBOSOMES... A DIFFERENT PROTEIN IS PRODUCED W/ A DIFFERENT EXPRESSION)
  54. PROSTAGLANDINS
    "LOCAL HORMONE" EFFECTS LOCAL CELLS ONLY
  55. HOW HORMONES WORK TOGETHER...
    • 1. SYNERGISM
    • 2. ANTAGONISM
    • 3. PERMISSIVELY: ALLOWS 1ST HORMONE TO BE MORE EFFECTIVE

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