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What Is a Skill? 3 characteristics
- 1. Perceiving the relevant environmental features
- 2. Deciding what to do and where and when to do it to achieve the goal
- 3. Producing organized muscular activity to generate movements that achieve the goal
Motor vs. Cognitive elements
- –Emphasis is placed on correct performance.
- –Decision making is minimized, and motor performance is maximized.
- –Emphasis is placed on what to do.
- –Decision making is maximized, and motor control is minimized
Using logical deduction, scientists can determine certain __________ a given theory makes. These form the basis of __________, which can be tested in the laboratory
Skills are different from movements because
they have an environmental goal
Variable error (VE) measures
the consistency of error in a block of trials
Driving a manual car is best described as a ______ skill
__________ is an example of a tracking task.
- A 400 m sprint
- Dribbling a basketball
- Driving a car
- Cross-country skiing
The components of stimuli from sources such as vision, audition, and touch are thought to be __________ in the stimulus identification stage.
_____________ is the stage of information processing in which a person decides what to do with the information provided.
- Stimulus identification
- Response selection
- Response interpretation
- Response programming
The interval of elapsed time after a suddenly presented stimulus until the beginning of the response is called the ________
reaction time interval
The extent to which a stimulus and response are connected in a natural way is called __________.
- stimulus-response compatibility
- population stereotype
- spatial compatibility
- stimulus-response adaptability
__________ relates to storing and retrieving information about motor skills.
- Procedural memory
- Semantic memory
- Episodic memory
- Absolute memory
The process of rehearsing information keeps it available in the __________.
- long-term memory
- short-term memory
- short-term sensory store
- motor memory
According to Hick's Law, choice RT increases a constant amount every time the number of stimulus-response alternatives is __________.
Anticipation that involves what will happen in the environment is called ____________
Information stored in which memory system is thought to be very abstract?
Constant Error (CE)
- Average all the scores for each subject
- Interpreted as an overall tendency to underthrow or overthrow the target
*Stages of Information Processing
- –Stimulus Identification
- –Response Selection
- –Movement Programming
Stimulus Identification Stage
- The system’s problem is to decide whether a stimulus has been presented and, if so, what it is.
- •It is primarily a sensory stage.
- •The components of stimuli are thought to be assembled in this stage.
- •Patterns of movement are detected.
Response Selection Stage
- •The system’s problem is deciding what response to make, given the nature of the situation and environment.
- •It is a transition process between sensory input and movement output.
Movement Programming Stage
- •The system’s problem is organizing the motor system to make the desired movement.
- •Before producing a movement, the system must ready the lower-level mechanisms in the brain stem and spinal cord for action and retrieve and organize a motor program.
Reaction Time (RT)
- •RT interval is a measure of the accumulated durations of the three stages of processing.
- •Any factor that increases the duration of one or more of these stages will lengthen RT.
- •Why is it important to study in the real world?
Reaction time influenced by
Number of Stimulus–Response Alternatives
the extent to which the stimulus and the response it evokes are connected in a natural way.
- It is a type of stimulus–response compatibility.
- •The association of the stimulus and response is likely learned in population stereotypes
- •We sometimes act habitually due to specific cultural learning.
Considering the processes occurring in the stimulus identification stage, some sensory information can be processed in parallel and without much interference—that is, without attention (stroop effect)
We can miss seemingly obvious features in our environment when we are engaged in attentive visual search (e.g., Simons and Chabris,1999).
deliberate and requires consciousness, slow, serial, attention demanding, voluntary and more prominent during the early stages of learning
Automaticity = Performance of a skill (or parts of a skill) without requiring attention resources
- Automatic processing is:
- –Parallel (several tasks performed simultaneously)
- –Not attention demanding
- –Often involuntary
factors that affect that information processing
- Arousal/ Stress