The larynx - controlling the airways and making noises

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Anonymous
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295980
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The larynx - controlling the airways and making noises
Updated:
2015-02-16 07:06:59
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Larynx Anatomy
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Vet Med - Module 9
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  1. Muscles of the pharynx, tongue and hyoid apparatus move the larynx rostral/caudally?  Ventral hyoid muscles move the larynx rostrally/caudally?
    • Rostrally
    • Caudally
  2. Name the muscles that move the larynx rostrally.  Which nerve innervates these muscles?
    • Geniohyoid and hypoglossus
    • Hypoglossal nerve
  3. Name the muscles that move the larynx caudally.  Which nerve innervates these muscles?
    • Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid
    • Ventral branches of cervical spinal nerve and Accessory nerve
  4. List the intrinsic muscles of the larynx
    Dorsal cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, cricothyroid, thryoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid
  5. What is the function and nerve supply of the dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle?
    • Function - glottis abduction
    • Nerve supply - caudal recurrent laryngeal nerve
  6. What is the function and nerve supply of the transverse arytenoid muscle?
    • Function - glottis adduction
    • Nerve supply - caudal recurrent laryngeal nerve
  7. What is the function and nerve supply of the cricothyroid muscle?
    • Function - Stretches/tenses the vocal folds
    • Nerve supply - cranial laryngeal nerve
  8. What is the function and nerve supply of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle?
    • Function - glottis adduction
    • Nerve supply - caudal recurrent laryngeal nerve
  9. What is the function and nerve supply of the thyroarytenoid muscle?
    • Function - adjusts tension in the vocal folds
    • Nerve supply - Caudal recurrent laryngeal nerve
  10. Describe the path of the vagus nerve and how it forms the recurrent laryngeal nerve.  How does this differ on the right and left side?
    The vagus nerve continues down the neck and accompanies the common carotid artery, which runs down the ventrolateral side of the trachea, along with sympathetic nerves in the thoracic cavity.  On the right side at the level of the thoracic inlet a looping branch of the vagus nerve heads back up the neck to supply the trachea, oesophagus and larynx.  The same happens on the left side the branching does not occur until the vagus nerve is well within the thoracic inlet.  Therefore, the right recurrent laryngeal nerve forms well before the left recurrent laryngeal nerve.
  11. Which blood vessels supply the laryngeal region?
    Cranial and caudal laryngeal arteries (branches of common carotid artery) and satellite veins
  12. Which lymph nodes drain the laryngeal area?
    Retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes
  13. Describe what happens to the larynx during swallowing
    Bolus is formed int he oral cavity which is pushed into the oropharynx by the tongue (voluntary action).  The soft palate is elevated to close of the nasopharynx.  The bolus is moved through the pharynx into the oesophagus by constriction of constrictor muscles while the larynx is moved rostrally.  The epiglottis partially covers the aditus.  The glottis is closed by the action of lateral cricoarytenoid and transverse arytenoid muscles.  The bolus passes over or around the epiglottis.
  14. What happens if food does enter the larynx?
    Contact with the mucosa of the vestibule initiates reflex coughing
  15. Describe the mechanism of vocalisation using the larynx
    Narrowing and widening of the glottis causes air to vibrate in the vocal chords.  In dogs the lateral ventricle is also thought to play a role in barking.
  16. How is pitch altered?
    By changing the length and tension of the vocal chords suns the cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles
  17. How is purring achieved?
    Through fast twitching of the laryngeal muscles and diaphragm
  18. Why are horses obligate nasal breathers?
    As the larynx is fixed in position within the nasopharynx by the palatopharyngeal arch
  19. List different ways horses can increase their air intake
    • Dilation of nostrils
    • Constriction of blood vessels in nasal mucosa
    • Opening of glottis
    • Extension of head and neck
    • Action of abdominal viscera against the diaphragm
  20. What is soft palate displacement in the horse?  What is a clinical sign?  How can it be corrected?
    • Dislocation of the larynx and trapping of the epiglottis below the soft palate
    • Gurgling or choking 
    • Correction - removal of epiglottis
  21. What is aryepiglottis fold entrapment in the horse?
    When the aryepiglottic folds partially cover the epiglottis
  22. What does left recurrent laryngeal hemiplegia in horses result in?
    Paralysis of the left dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle (abudctor) and flaccid vocal chord
  23. What does left recurrent laryngeal hemiplegia present as?
    A 'roaring' sound
  24. How can left recurrent laryngeal hemiplegia be corrected?
    Prosthetics or removal of the lateral ventricle
  25. List some clinical problems associated with the larynx in dogs
    • Elongation of the soft palate (causes obstruction)
    • Fractures of the larynx and hyoid (due to fighting or choke chains)
    • Paralysis of the larynx (can be due to age or it is inherited in some cases)

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