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What are somatic cells?
any type of cell other than a reproductive cell
contain a full set of chromosomes
number of chromosomes in somatic cells:
What are gametes?
have half the chromosomes of somatic cells
number of chromosomes in gametes:
the division process that produces haploid cells:
What are spermatogonia?
stem cells that have the potential to produce sperm
meiosis in spermatogenesis produces:
haploid pre-spermatozoa called spermatids
maturation of spermatids to produce mature sperm
What is the zona pellucida?
membrane that surrounds the oocyte and function to bind the sperm to the oocyte via the acrosome
allows the release of genetic material into the egg for fertilization, which creates the zygote
process of cell duplication where one cell creates two genetically identical daughter cells
division of germ cells that creates four gametes, each having half the number of chromosomes of the original cell
Where does the process of sperm formation occur?
How many chromosomes do horses have?
What forms the base layers of the germinal epithelium?
over one billion spermatagonia in the testicles
What are type A cells?
spermatagonia that undergo mitotic division
What are type B cells?
daughter cells that replenish the spermatagonia
Where is spermiogenesis completed?
What happens during spermiogenesis?
all non-essential components of spermatids are lost
nucleus of the cell becomes the head
What is found in the acrosome?
digestive enzymes that allow the sperm to digest and penetrate the zona pellucida around the oocyte
What is the function of Leydig cells?
produce testosterone and estrogen
What releases GnRH?
process of spermatogenesis:
meiosis occurs and produces spermatids
then spermiogenesis occurs that turns spermatids into mature sperm
What hormone do Leydig cells respond to?
What is the function of sertoli cells?
act as phagocytes and engulf & digest cellular debris
sertoli cells are also known as:
What hormone do sertoli cells respond to?
Leydig cells are also known as:
What's an example of a GnRH antagonist?
makes stallions less sexually aggressive
What does Prolactin do?
increases the response of leydig cells to LH and also increases testosterone
Where are Leydig cells found?
in the testes
Where are sertoli cells found?