CommunityandPublicHealth

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Author:
ckitejr
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295994
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CommunityandPublicHealth
Updated:
2015-02-16 20:43:26
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Public Health
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Introduction to Community Healthy by McKenzie and Pinger
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  1. Health
    A dynamic state or condition of the human organism that is multidimensional in nature
  2. Community
    collective body of individuals identified by a common characteristic
  3. Public Health
    actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the condition in which people can be healthy can occur
  4. Public Health System
    the organization mechanism of those activities undertaken with in the formal structure of government
  5. Community Health
    the health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve their health
  6. Population Health
    the health status of people who are not organized and have no identity as a group or locality
  7. Global Health
    describes health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national borders
  8. Factors affecting health of a community
    • Physical factors
    • Social and Cultural
    • Community organization
    • individual behaviors
  9. community organizing
    the process by which community groups are helped to identify common problems or change targets, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies
  10. Herd immunity
    resistance of a population to the spread of an infectious agent based on the immunity of a high proportion of the individuals
  11. Healthy People 2020
    US national goals set forth to define the US public health agenda
  12. Health Related Millennium development Goals
    • eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • reduce child mortality
    • improve maternal health
    • combat HIV/Aids Malaria and other diseases
    • ensure environmental sustainability
    • develop a global partnership for development
  13. Health and Human services HHS
    • Oversees all aspects of health in the US
    • CDC, FDA, NIH, CMS, FDA
  14. core Functions of publica health
    • assessment
    • policy
    • development
    • assurance
  15. Quasi-governmental vs voluntary
    • quasi-has an assigned governmental function
    • voluntary-formed to meet needs not addressed through government
  16. Epidemiology
    the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control health problems
  17. Epidemic
    an unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior or other health related event in a particular population
  18. Endemic disease
    a disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course
  19. pandemic
    outbreak of a disease over a wide geographical area
  20. incidence rate
    the number of new cases of a disease divided by the total number in the population at risk
  21. prevalence rate
    the number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time, divided by the total number in that population
  22. crude rate
    a rate in which the denominator includes the total population
  23. crude death/birth rate
    The total births/deaths per 1000 people in a given period of time
  24. Specific rate
    measures morbidity and mortality for a specific diseases or populations
  25. Proportionate mortality ratio
    the percentage of overall mortality in a population that is attributable to a particular cause
  26. Reportable diseases include...
    Cancer, gonorrhea, Hep A-C, HIV, Lyme, Malaria, Measles, Mumps, Pertussis, Rubella, Smallpox, Varicella, Syphilus, TB, Yellow Fever
  27. YPLL
    • Years of potential life lost
    • number of years lost when death occurs before 65 or 75.
  28. DALYs
    • Disability-adjusted life years
    • measure of the burden of a disease that takes into account the premature death and loss of healthy life from disability
  29. HALE
    • Health-adjusted life expectancy
    • the number of years of healthy life expected in a given population
  30. Vital Statitics
    • records of major life events
    • birth, marriage, divorce, death and infant death
  31. Incubation period
    The period between exposure and onset of symptoms
  32. Point source epidemic
    a type of epidemic where all cases were exposed a certain point in time
  33. Propagated epidemic curve
    an epidemic curve depicting a distribution of cases traceable to multiple exposures
  34. Cross-sectional study
    when information about diseases and exposure are collected at the same time
  35. Case control
    a comparison of groups of people those with disease to those without disease to asses for risk factors
  36. Odds ratio
    a probability statement about the association between a particular disease and a specific risk factor, resulting from case/control study
  37. Relative risk
    the relationship of acquiring a specific disease when a given risk factor is present vs when the risk factor is absent
  38. Zoonosis
    disease is transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans
  39. Anthroponosis
    disease only affects humans
  40. Etiology
    the main cause of a disease
  41. Vector
    an organism that can transmit a communicable agent to susceptible host
  42. Primary prevention
    preventative measures that forestall the onset of illness or injury during the prepathogenisis period (exercise)
  43. Secondary Prevention
    preventative measures that lead to an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease or injury to limit the disability and prevent more severe pathogenesis (cancer screening)
  44. Tertiary prevention
    measures aimed at rehabilitation following significant pathogenesis
  45. Unmodifiable risk factors
    factors contributing to the development of a noncommunicable disease that cannot be altered by modifying one's behavior or environment
  46. Modifiable risk factors
    contributors of a noncommunicable disease that can be altered by changing one's behavior or environment
  47. Gag Rule
    Bands conversation between patient and provider regarding abortion services when clinic is receiving federal funds
  48. Low birth weight
    < 5.5 lbs
  49. Adolescents and young adults
    10-24

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