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What type of study is classified as nonexperimental or observational design? Aims to capture naturally occurring variations in the features of the phenomenon being studied.
Descriptive research

What are the elements, features, or characteristics of persons, experiences, situations, or things studied in descriptive research called
variables

What are healthcare providers interested in regarding variables?
 Level in various populations
 How they change over time
 How they affect one another

What is the term for measurement methods that consistently yields values close to the actual values
Reliability

What do researchers call it when a measurement method captures a high degree the totality of a variable of interest
Valid

What is the difference in readings caused by the difference in measurement technique called?
measurement error

What is the accurate capture of underlying concept
Validity

What three things suggest that Data is trustworthy
 Appropriate choice of measurement instruments
 Proven Measurement Instruments
 Sound data collection procedures

What are variables that may have influence in the situation but are outside the interest of study
Extraneous Variables

What do researchers use to minimize the effect of participation in a study by considering the order in which the data are collected and/or by giving equal attention to all groups whom data are collected
Hawthorne Effect

What is an interval with defined endpoints between which the means of many other samples are likely to lie
confidence interval

What does the confidence interval capture
The true population mean

What is random selection
Everyone has an equal opportunity to be chosen

What is a sample that is randomly selected from a list of population members
simple random sampling

What sampling type is used when the researcher wants to get data from subgroups of the population that are small and might not be present in sufficient numbers in a simple, random sample (STRATAS)
Stratified Random Sampling

What type of sampling is used when the target population is large and spread out and the researcher needs to concentrate data collections in a few locations
Cluster sampling

What type of sampling consists of an assumed population that is defined by demographic, disease, functional, symptom, or wellness characteristic (accessible to researcher)
Convenience sampling

Steps of convenience sampling
 Assumed population
 Presumed to be assumed
 Conduct sample
 Develop detailed profile of charecteristics
 Statistical Inferences and generalizations

What two things could the target population be
 actual population (random)
 projected population (convenience)

What types of factors are taken into consideration when selecting sample size in a quantitative study
 type of study
 number of the variable
 Statistics used
 How much variability
 Difference in comparison groups expected
 Resources available for study

Describe 3 issues that occur with surveys
 Failure to obtain sample from target
 Unclear questionaires to those taking survey
 Low response rate (not representative)

What is the most common way descriptive study reports the results
percentages

When would the mean verse the median be applied when reporting average scores in descriptive study results
 Mean: when numbers are close together
 Median: When there are outliers (skewed)

What is the probability that the difference in the means being compared is just chance variation
p value

What are truth of findings as judged by participants and others within the discipline
Credibility

What is Accountability as judged by the adequacy of information leading the reader from the research question and raw data through various steps of analysis to the interpretation of findings
Auditability

What is faithfulness to everyday reality of the participants, described in enough detail so that others in the discipline can evaluate the importance for their own practice, research, and theory development
Fittingness

What are findings that reflect implementation of credibility, autditability, and fittingness standards
Confirmability

Name the four criterias of judging scientific rigor
 Credibility
 Auditability
 Fittingness
 Confirmability

Name 4 types of quantitative research
 Descriptive
 Correlational
 Quasiexperimental
 Experimental

What type of quantitative research looks at the relationship between 2 or more variables
Correlational

What type of quantitative research is less controlled by researcher, samples are not randomly selected, and examines cause and effect relationship
Quasiexperimental

What type of quantitative research is highly controlled, objective, systematic, measures independent and dependent variables, and looks at cause and effect relationship
Experimental

Name 3 characteristics of Experimental research
 Controlled manipulation of at least 1 independent variable
 Uses experimental and control groups
 Random assignments

What type of research seeks to solve real problems in clinical practice?
Applied

What type of reasoning is essential to rigor in quantitative research
logical

What two types of research have natural settings
correlational and descriptive

What is an area of concern needing research for nursing practice
research problem

What comes from the research problem and identifies a specific goal or aim in the study
Research purpose

What 3 things is included in the research purpose
 Variables
 Population
 Setting

What is the purpose of literacy review
understanding what knowledge exists to make changes in practice

What is the abstract, theoretical basis for a study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing body of knowledge
Study Framework

What is an integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control phenomenon
Theory

What are concepts that are measured, manipulated, or controlled in a study
variables

Example of concrete verse abstract variables
 concrete: weight, temperature
 abstract: creativity, empathy

Statements taken for granted or are considered true
assumptions

What type of limitations restricted the generalization of the findings and are reflected in the framework and definitions
Theoretical

What type of limitations restrict the population to which the findings can be generalized
Methodological

What maximizes control over factors that could interfere with the study's desired outcome (directs selection of population, sampling methods of measure, plans for data collection, and analysis) BLUEPRINT
Research Design

What are all elements that meet certain criteria in study
population

Where is data collection described on research article
under "procedures"

What part of the research article interprets data findings in meaningful manner, forms conclusions, and considers implications for nursing practice
Research outcome

What describes findings after data is analyzed in the research article
Results

What reduces, organizes, and gives meaning to DATA
Data analysis

