adnexa lids orbit lacrimal NBEO.txt

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cjensen20
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296020
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adnexa lids orbit lacrimal NBEO.txt
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2015-07-17 08:10:42
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adnexa lids orbit lacrimal NBEO optometry
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adnexa lids orbit lacrimal NBEO optometry
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  1. What is the muscle of horner?
    Lacrimal part of the orbicularis oculi
  2. What does the muscle of horner do?
    Assists in moving tears into nasolacrimal drainage system
  3. What is the muscle of Riolan?
    Ciliary part of the orbicularis oculi
  4. What does the muscle of Riolan do?
    Maintains lid margins close to the globe
  5. How does horner's syndrome work on the muscle of Riolan?
    Lack of sympathetic innervation causes reverse ptosis of lower lid
  6. What does paralysis of orbicularis oculi cause?
    Ectropion
  7. How is the orbicularis oculi innervated?
    • Palpebral portion CN7
    • Orbital portion CN3
  8. What is the antagonist muscle of the palpebral portion of the orbicularis oculi?
    Levator
  9. From where does the superior palpebral levator originate?
    Lesser wing of the sphenoid
  10. How many nuclei are there for the superior palpebral levators?
    1 sub nucleus that controls both levators
  11. What does the superior transverse ligament do?
    Acts as a fulcrum
  12. Where is the superior transverse ligament located?
    Where levator muscle ends and aponeurosis begins
  13. What does the levator aponeurosis do?
    Creates a palpebral sulcus
  14. How is the tarsal muscle of muller innervated?
    • Sympathetic
    • A2 receptors
  15. What does the tarsal muscle of muller do?
    Provides additional 2mm of lid elevation
  16. What 2 muscles can cause ptosis?
    • Levator, bigger ptosis
    • Muller's muscle, small ptosis
  17. What is the site of internal hordeolum?
    Meibomian glands
  18. What do the glands of Zeiss secrete?
    Sebaceous sebum into eyelash follicle
  19. What is the site of an external hordeolum?
    Glands of Zeiss
  20. What do the glands of Moll do?
    • Modified sweat glands
    • Associated with immune defense of lash and shaft
  21. What do the meibomian glands do?
    Secrete lipid portion of tears
  22. How is the lacrimal gland innervated?
    • CN5 V1 Ophthalmic
    • Vasomotor = sympathetic
    • Secretomotor = parasympathetic
  23. Where is the source of dacryoadenitis?
    Lacrimal gland
  24. What are the accessory lacrimal glands?
    Krause and Wolfring
  25. Where are the glands of Krause located?
    Stroma of conjunctival fornix
  26. Where are the glands of Wolfring located?
    Along orbital tarsal plate
  27. What glands are sebaceous (lipid)?
    • Meibomian
    • Zeiss
    • Moll
  28. What glands are aqueous?
    • Lacrimal
    • Krause
    • Wolfring
  29. What glands produce mucin?
    Goblet cells
  30. Where is the source of concretions?
    Goblet cells
  31. What innervates the sensory portion of the upper lids?
    • Supraorbital
    • Supratrochlear
    • Infratrochlear
    • Lacrimal nerves
    • V1 ophthalmic
  32. What innervates the sensory portion of the lower lids?
    • Infratrochlear
    • Infraorbital
    • V2 Maxillary
  33. What is the arterial supply of the eyelids?
    • Internal carotid = deeper eyelid tissue
    • External carotid = superficial eyelid tissue
  34. What muscle helps to pump tears into the lacrimal sac?
    Muscle of Horner
  35. What muscle helps create negative pressure to suck tears into sack?
    Preseptal orbicularis
  36. What bacterium is a common culprit of canaliculitis?
    Actinomyces israelii
  37. What are the major functions of tears?
    • Optical
    • Nutritional
    • Mechanical
    • Antibacterial
    • Buffer
  38. What antibacterial products are found within the tears?
    • Lysozymes
    • Lactoferrin
    • IgA
  39. Where is the largest change in refractive index found?
    Tear layer
  40. A deficiency of what causes Bitot's Spots?
    All-trans retinol, derived from Vitamin A
  41. What are Bitot's spots?
    Foamy keratin on conjunctivitis / cornea
  42. What innervates for reflex tearing?
    Parasympathetic
  43. What innervates for the dazzle reflex blinking?
    CN2
  44. What muscle is responsible for spontaneous blinking?
    Palpebral portion of orbicularis oculi
  45. What causes reflex blinking?
    • Auditory CN8
    • Touch / irritation=CN5 sensory, CN7 motor
    • Dazzle CN2
    • Menace CN2
  46. What is bell's phenomemon?
    Eyes go up and out on lid closure for protective purposes
  47. What is Mullers muscle located in relation to the levator?
    Mullers is directly posterior to levator
  48. Where is the Obicularis Oculi muscle located in relation to the orbital septum?
    The Obicularis Oculi is located directly anterior to the orbital septum
  49. Where is the orbital septum located in relation to the levator?
    The orbital septum is directly anterior to the levator
  50. Where is the tarsal plate located in relation to Mullers muscle?
    The tarsal plate is located directly posterior to Muller's muscle
  51. What muscles cause forced blinking?
    Palpebral and orbital portions of obicularis oculi

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