It can go through PENTOSE PHOS pathway: results in CO2 and NADPH, which is breathed out and used for synthesizing other molecules, respectively
It can be used to SYNTHESIZE and BUILD DNA
It can be used for GLYCOLYSIS: to synthesize ENERGY
It can be STORED as GLYCOGEN: aids in not disrupting the osmotic pressure, as many glucose molecules can be stored as one glycogen molecule, so therefore an infinite amount of glycogen CANNOT be stored
Process of generating action potential from neurons and therefore contraction, brief
neurotransmitters release from neuron
Acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) then binds to Ach gated channels
Series of closing and opening of Sodium and calcium channels help to generate the action potential
All done in the MUSCLE CELL MEMBRANE
Ultimate result is the muscle contraction
How is heat generated
Via metabolic chemical reactions used to GENERATE ATP
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETC, for example
What is contraction speed dependent on?
Type of ATPase present: the ability of ATP to become phosphorylated
Why are fast-twitch muscles larger and stronger than slow twitch?
The larger, fast twitch muscles have: LARGER NEURONS and are MORE MYLEINATED
Therefore they release MUCH MORE NEUROTRANSMITTERS: Higher depolarization and higher frequency of release, resulting in higher action potentials
The increased action potentials allows for: HIGHER Ca released, which results in INCREASED GENE REGULATION, resulting in MORE GROWTH!!
Ca in relation to muscle cells
Ca in fast twitch: increased amounts due to increased action potential speeds (APs/second)
This results in an INCREASE IN TRanscription factors: leads to increase in MUSCLE GROWTH
Role of ENZYME:
Provide ATOMS and ELECTRONS necessary for chemical RXN to occur at the spot needed for rxn to proceed
How is osmotic pressure gradient helped out to not explode cells
Glucose: as soon as enters cell it is phosphorylated: constant processing and transitioning in order to get it to a single glycogen molecule (vs many glucose molecules)
Also glucose converts to: TRIGLYCERIDES, which are fat-soluble so DO NOT AFFECT osmotic gradient
Pathway regulation occurs b/c
DO NOT want TOO MUCH heat to be generated to quickly!
DECREASED Amt of HEAT Transferred from cell to H20 surrounding: Poor conduction
Results in INCREASED HEAT in cell: leaky membranes and most importantly DECREASED ABILITY TO GENERATE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
action potentials cannot occur, and if not occurring in diaphragm, can't breath: DEATH