exam 1 question set 2.txt

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exam 1 question set 2.txt
2015-02-16 18:57:24
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  1. Why is glucose needed
    • It can go through PENTOSE PHOS pathway: results in CO2 and NADPH, which is breathed out and used for synthesizing other molecules, respectively
    • It can be used to SYNTHESIZE and BUILD DNA
    • It can be used for GLYCOLYSIS: to synthesize ENERGY
    • It can be STORED as GLYCOGEN: aids in not disrupting the osmotic pressure, as many glucose molecules can be stored as one glycogen molecule, so therefore an infinite amount of glycogen CANNOT be stored
  2. Process of generating action potential from neurons and therefore contraction, brief
    • neurotransmitters release from neuron
    • Acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) then binds to Ach gated channels
    • Series of closing and opening of Sodium and calcium channels help to generate the action potential
    • All done in the MUSCLE CELL MEMBRANE
    • Ultimate result is the muscle contraction
  3. How is heat generated
    • Via metabolic chemical reactions used to GENERATE ATP
    • Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETC, for example
  4. What is contraction speed dependent on?
    Type of ATPase present: the ability of ATP to become phosphorylated
  5. Why are fast-twitch muscles larger and stronger than slow twitch?
    • The larger, fast twitch muscles have: LARGER NEURONS and are MORE MYLEINATED
    • Therefore they release MUCH MORE NEUROTRANSMITTERS: Higher depolarization and higher frequency of release, resulting in higher action potentials
    • The increased action potentials allows for: HIGHER Ca released, which results in INCREASED GENE REGULATION, resulting in MORE GROWTH!!
  6. Ca in relation to muscle cells
    • Ca in fast twitch: increased amounts due to increased action potential speeds (APs/second)
    • This results in an INCREASE IN TRanscription factors: leads to increase in MUSCLE GROWTH
  7. Role of ENZYME:
    Provide ATOMS and ELECTRONS necessary for chemical RXN to occur at the spot needed for rxn to proceed
  8. How is osmotic pressure gradient helped out to not explode cells
    • Glucose: as soon as enters cell it is phosphorylated: constant processing and transitioning in order to get it to a single glycogen molecule (vs many glucose molecules)
    • Also glucose converts to: TRIGLYCERIDES, which are fat-soluble so DO NOT AFFECT osmotic gradient
  9. Pathway regulation occurs b/c
    DO NOT want TOO MUCH heat to be generated to quickly!
  10. If dehydrated
    • DECREASED Amt of HEAT Transferred from cell to H20 surrounding: Poor conduction
    • Results in INCREASED HEAT in cell: leaky membranes and most importantly DECREASED ABILITY TO GENERATE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
    • action potentials cannot occur, and if not occurring in diaphragm, can't breath: DEATH