Sociology 204 #2

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Sociology 204 #2
2015-02-17 02:54:00
Exam 2
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  1. Achieved status
    a social position that is within our power to change
  2. Agrarian society
    the most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society. Members are engaged primarily in the production of food, but they increase their crop yields through technological innovations such as the plow
  3. Alienation
    loss of control over our creative human capacity to produce, separation from the products we make, and isolation from our fellow producers
  4. Ascribed Status
    a social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics
  5. Bureaucracy
    a component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency
  6. Bureucratization
    the process by which a group, organization, or social movement increasingly relies on technical-rational decision making in the pursuit of efficiency
  7. Classical theory
    an approach to the study of formal organization that view workers as being motivated almost entirely by economic rewards
  8. Coalition
    a temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal
  9. Gemeinschaft
    a close-knit community, often found in rural areas, in which strong personal bonds unite members
  10. Gesellschaft
    a community, often urban, that is large and impersonal, with little commitment to the group or consensus on values
  11. Goal displacement
    overzealous conformity to official regulations of a bureaucracy
  12. Group
    any number of people with shared norms, values, and goals who interact with one another on a regular basis
  13. Horticultural society
    a preindustrial society in which people plant seeds and crops rather than merely subsist on available foods
  14. Human relations approach
    an approach to the study of formal organizations that emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation in a bureaucracy and tends to focus on the informal structure of the organization
  15. Hunting-and-gathering society
    a preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to survive
  16. Ideal type
    an abstract model of the essential characteristics of a phenomenon
  17. Industrial society
    a society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services
  18. In-group
    a category of people who share a common identity and sense of belonging
  19. Iron law of oligarchy
    the principle that all organizations, even democratic ones, tend to develop into a bureaucracy ruled by an elite few
  20. Master status
    a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society
  21. McDonaldization
    the process by which the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control shape organization and decision making in the US and around the world
  22. Mechanical solidarity
    social cohesion based on shared experiences, knowledge, and skills in which things function more or less the way they always have, with minimal change
  23. Organic solidarity
    Social cohesion based on mutual interdependence in the context of extreme division of labor
  24. Out-group
    a category of people who do not belong or do not fit in
  25. Postindustrial society
    a society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information
  26. Postmodern society
    a technologically sophisticated, pluralistic, interconnected, globalized society
  27. Primary group
    a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation
  28. Reference group
    any group that individuals use a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior
  29. Role conflict
    the situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social statuses held by the same person
  30. Role exit
    the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity
  31. Role strain
    the difficulty that arises when the same social status imposes conflicting demands and expectations
  32. Scientific management approach
    another name for the classical theory of formal organizations
  33. Secondary group
    a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding
  34. Social institution
    integrated and persistent social networks dedicated to ensuring that society's core needs are met
  35. Social interaction
    a reciprocal exchange in which two or more people read, react, and respond to each other
  36. Social network
    a series of social relationships that links individuals directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more people
  37. Social role
    a set of expected behaviors for people who occupy a given social position or status
  38. Social structure
    the underlying framework of society consisting of the positions people occupy and the relationships between them
  39. Status
    the social positions we occupy relative to others
  40. Trained incapacity
    the tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice potential problems
  41. Conformity
    the act of going along with peers - individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior
  42. Control theory
    a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society's norms
  43. Crime
    a violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties
  44. Cultural transmission
    a school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions
  45. Deviance
    behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
  46. Differential association
    a theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts
  47. Differential justice
    differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups
  48. Formal social control
    social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers
  49. Index crimes (8 types)
    • the eight types of crime reported annualy by the FBI in theĀ Uniform Crime Reports:
    • murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson
  50. Informal social control
    social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smiles, ridicule
  51. Labeling theory
    an approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not
  52. Obedience
    compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
  53. Organized crime
    the work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs
  54. Social control
    the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
  55. Social disorganization theory
    the theory that attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships, and social institutions, such as family, school, church, and local government
  56. Societal-reaction approach
    another name for labeling theory
  57. Stigma
    a label used to devalue members of certain social groups
  58. Strain theory of deviance
    Merton's theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment, or both
  59. Transnational crime
    crime that occurs across multiple national borders
  60. Victimization survery
    a questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime
  61. Victimless crime
    a term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services
  62. White-collar crime
    illegal acts committed by affluent, "respectable" individuals in the course of business activities
  63. Adoption
    in a legal sense, a process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents
  64. Cohabitation
    the practice of a man and a woman living together in a sexual relationship without being married
  65. Domestic partnership
    two unrelated adults who have chosen to share a mutually caring relationship, reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents, basic living expenses, and other common necessities
  66. Egalitarian family
    an authority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals
  67. Extended family
    a family in which relatives - such as grandparents, aunts, or uncles - live in the same household as parents and their children
  68. Familism
    pride in the extended family, expressed through the maintenance of close ties and strong obligations to kinfolk outside the immediate family
  69. Functionalist definition of families
    a definition of families that focuses on how families provide for the physical, social, and emotional needs of individuals and of society as a whole
  70. Incest taboo
    the prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives
  71. Kinship
    the state of being related to others
  72. Machismo
    a sense of virility, personal worth, and pride in one's maleness
  73. Matriarchy
    a society in which women dominate in family decision making
  74. Nuclear family
    a married couple and their unmarried children living together
  75. Patriarchy
    a society in which men dominate in family decision making
  76. Serial monogamy
    a form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one spouse at a time
  77. Single-parent family
    a family in which only one parent is present to care for the children
  78. Substantive definition of the family
    a definition of the family based on blood, meaning shared genetic heritage, and law, meaning social recognition and affirmation of the bond including both marriage and adoption
  79. Absolute poverty
    a minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below
  80. Bourgeoisie
    Karl Marx's term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production
  81. Capitalism
    an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits
  82. Caste
    a hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile
  83. Class
    a group of people who have similar level of economic resources
  84. Class consciousness
    in Karl Marx's view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change
  85. Class system
    a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
  86. Closed system
    a social system in which there is little or no possibility of individual social mobility
  87. Cultural capital
    our tastes, knowledge, attitudes, language, and ways of thinking that we exchange in interaction with others
  88. Digital divide
    the relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low-income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries
  89. Estate system (aka Feudalism)
    a system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other servies
  90. Esteem
    the reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation
  91. False consciousness
    a term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that doesn't accurately reflect their objective position
  92. Horizontal mobility
    the movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank
  93. Income
    money received over some period of time
  94. Intergenerational mobility
    changes in the social position of children relative to their parents
  95. Intragenerational mobility
    changes in social position within a person's adult life
  96. Life chances
    the opportunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
  97. Open system
    a social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status
  98. Party
    the capacity to organize to accomplish some particular goal
  99. Prestige
    the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society
  100. Proletariat
    Karl Marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society, who lack ownership of the means of production
  101. Relative poverty
    a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole
  102. Slavery
    a system enforced servitude in which some people are owned by others as property
  103. Social mobility
    movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
  104. Socioeconomic status (SES)
    a measure of class that is based on income, education, occupation, and related variables
  105. Status group
    people who share the same perceived level of prestige
  106. Stratification
    a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society
  107. Underclass
    the long-term poor who lack training and skills
  108. Vertical mobility
    the movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank
  109. Wealth
    the total of all a person's material assets minus debts at a single point in time