Anatomy - Tissues

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Author:
NateS11
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296111
Filename:
Anatomy - Tissues
Updated:
2015-02-17 19:43:54
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Anatomy
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Anatomy - tissues
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  1. 4 Types of tissue
    • Connective 
    • Epithelial 
    • Muscle
    • Nerve
  2. Epithelial tissue
    • Coverings and linings
    • Examples
    • -Skin Surface
    • -Glands
    • -GI
    • -Cardiovascular
    • -Respiratory
    • -Urinary
    • -Reprodctive
  3. Connective Tissue
    • Widely distributed throughout the body
    • Support and Connections
    • Blood, bone & fat
  4. Muscle tissue
    • Movement (contraction)
    • Skeletal, cardiac & smooth
  5. Nerve Tissue
    • Information, electric & chemical signals
    • Brain, spinal cord & nerves
  6. Glands
    • One or more cells that secrete product
    • Two types: Endocrine, Exocrine
  7. Endocrine Gland
    • Secrete to blood
    • Often Ductless (dont need extra connection)
  8. Exocrine gland
    • Secrete onto surface or duct
    • Unicellular: Goblet & mucous, GI & respiratory system, Produce mucous 
    • Multicellular: Usually surrounded by connective tissue, classified by structure & secretion mode
  9. Characteristics of Epithelial tissue
    • Mostly cells
    • Exposed or free surface (Apical surface)
    • Basement membrane (connection to other tissue)
    • Polarity (uneven organelle structure)
    • Avascular (no blood vessels, can be nerves, innervation)
    • Regeneration
  10. Functions of epithelial tissue
    • Protection
    • Control permeability
    • Sensations
  11. Naming epithelial tissues
    • Based on # of layers and shape
    • Simple - one layer
    • Stratified - two or more layers
    • Squamous - flattened
    • Cuboidal - cube looking 
    • Columnar - long, tall column looking
  12. 2 Elements of connective tissue
    • Cells
    • Matrix
  13. What makes up the matrix of connective tissue?
    • Protein fibers 
    • Ground substances
  14. Cell types and locations
    • Immature = blasts
    • Mature = cytes
    • White blood cells (WBCs) - immune sys.
    • Mast cells - local information, allergies
    • Macrophages - Scavengers (big eaters)
  15. Describe the Matrix of Connective Tissue
    • Ground substance - liquid, proteins, etc.
    • Fibers - proteins
    • a. Collagen: - fibrous protein, cross-linked (not       very elastic)
    • b. Elastic: - long, thin, networks, stretch & recoil
    • c. Reticular: - network, hooked to collagen, e.g. basement membrane
  16. Functions of connective tissue
    • Structure 
    • Transport
    • Protection
    • Support, surround & interconnect others
    • Store energy
    • Defense
  17. Epithelial tissues are for?
    Coverings and linings
  18. A characteristics of epithelial tissue is that they are mostly cells (little extracellular stuff)
    True
  19. Connective tissues are the most abundant and widespread tissues in the body
    True
  20. Classification of blood
    • Blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells
    • Matrix: fluid (plasma) + proteins
    • Function: Transporter
    • *if the fluid part (plasma) leaks out of vessels = lymph
  21. Classification of cartilage
    • Supporting 
    • Chondroblasts, cytes
    • Chondro = cartilage
    • Collagen + significant ground substance
    • Good at handling compression, smooth (bone ends)
  22. Classification of Bone
    • Supporting
    • Osteoblasts, cytes, clasts (clast-break down or recycle bone)
    • Collagen + salts
    • Remodeled 
    • Blood vascular
  23. Classification of loose CT
    • Areolar - fibroblasts + significant ground substance
    • Stores H2O & salts (edema - sweeling b/c of leaked lymph)
    • Widely distributed
    • Superficial fascia (just deep to skin - aka hypodermis)
    • Adipose - adipocytes, energy storage, insulation
    • Vascular - lots of blood vessels
    • Reticular - fibroblasts
    • 1. Reticular fibers (greater %)
    • 2. bone marrow, spleen
  24. Classification of Regular Dense CT
    • Regular: fibers all go one direction
    • -fibroblasts
    • -one fiber direction
    • -tendons, ligaments, deep fascia (around muscles)
  25. Classification of Dense CT
    • Fibers most common part
    • 2 types: regular and irregular
  26. Classification of Irregular Dense CT
    • Irregular: Fibers cross each other
    • -fibroblasts
    • -Network of fibers (resist pulling in multiple directions)
    • -Skin dermis, joint capsules, organ coverings
  27. Membranes - at least two tissues
    • Cutaneous - skin/integument
    • Mucos - lining digestive, respiratory
    • Serous - line body cavities (ventral)
    • Synovial - around joints (CT only)
  28. Fascia - framework
    • Superficial - loose CT
    • Deep - dense CT
    • Subserous - loose CT

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