Medical Technologies

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Medical Technologies
2015-02-18 23:40:37
medical technology
unit 1 quiz
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  1. What is an ionic compound?
    Bond between a metal and non-metal
  2. What is a molecular compound?
    Bond between two non-metals
  3. What are the three types of Covalent Bonds?
    • -Polar Covalent Bonds 
    • -Non-Polar Covalent Bonds
    • -Coordinate Covalent Bonds
  4. What is a Polar Covalent Bond?
    • -Bond between two elements who have differing electronegativities 
    • -electronegativity 1.8 to 0.3
    • -creates a slightly negative and positive end
  5. What is a Non-polar covalent bond?
    • -formed between non-metals with the same electronegativities 
    • -involves equal sharing of electrons 
  6. What is a coordinate covalent bond?
    • in which both of the shared electrons come from the same atom
    • ex. NH4 Ammonium 
  7. What's the difference between intra and inter molecular forces?
    • -Intramolecular forces: "strong" covalent and ionic bonds
    • -Intermolecular forces: "weak" H-bonds, LDP
  8. Name the three Van Der Waals Forces
    • -Dipole Dipole forces
    • -london dispersion forces
    • -hydrogen bonding
  9. Explain Dipole dipole forces
    • -attractive force between polar molecules (bond between two elements with different electronegativities) 
    • -attractions between the positively and negatively charged ends
    • -stronger than LDP forces
  10. Explain LDP forces
    • -creates a temporary attractive force
    • -this results when electrons in adjacent atoms occupy positions that create temporary dipoles in an atom
    • -this causes 2nd atom to create a weak bond due to slightly negative and positive charges created by temporary dipoles
  11. Explain hydrogen bonds
    • -the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom (N, O, or F) 
    • -stronger than dipole dipole
    • -created between hydrogen molecules
  12. What is an organic compound?
    • Something that always contains carbon, or a carbon bond 
    • -covalently linked to an atom of another type (nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen) 
    • -found in biological systems
  13. What are some examples of organic compounds?
    • -DNA
    • -table sugar
    • -methane CH4
  14. What is an inorganic compound?
    • Something that does not contain carbon
    • -are usually synthesized
  15. What are some examples of an inorganic compound?
    • -table salt
    • -NaCl
    • -Carbon dioxide (considered inorganic because there is no C-C bond)
  16. What are two organic household products?
    • -cosmetics
    • -pesticides
  17. Explain Cosmetics
    • -used to enhance appearance or odour of human body
    • -mixed with chemical compounds 
    • -can be natural or synthetic
  18. Explain Pesticides
    • -for attracting and destroying pests
    • -chemical or biological agent that deters or kills
  19. What makes produce organic?
    • -does not mean "pesticide free" or "chemical free"  
    • -organic means that these pesticides came from natural, non-syntheic sources 
    • -pesticides must be applied using equipment that hasn't been used to apply synthetic materials for 3 years (land can't be exposed to synthetic materials)
  20. What is a pain medication?
    Used to achieve analgesia - relief from pain or the inability to feel pain
  21. What does PNS stand for? explain what it is
    • -peripheral nervous system
    • -made up of nerves and cluster of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord 
    • -it's function is to connect central NS with the limbs and organs 
    • -communication between brain and body extremities
  22. What does CNS stand for? explain what it is
    • -central nervous system
    • -made up of the brain and spinal cord 
    • -receives information and coordinates activity to all body parts
  23. What does NSAID stand for?
    Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs
  24. What do NSAIDs do?
    • Provide analgesic effects in higher dose with anti-inflammatory effects 
    • -usually non-narcotic, addictive, and are over the counter medications 
    • -used ton treat acute or chronic conditions where pain is present 
  25. What's acute?
    a disease with a short course of actions (can range from stubbed toe to myocardial infarction)
  26. What's chronic?
    • health condition which has longer lasting effects or a disease that develops over time 
    • ex. asthma, arthritis, HIV, cancer
  27. What are some uses for NSAIDs?
    rheumatoid arthritis, mild-to-moderate pain due to inflammation and tissue injury, lower back pain, tennis elbow, headache, migraines, gout-uric acid build up in blood
  28. NSAID inhibit both...
    • -cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)
    • -cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)
  29. What do cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) do?
    • -these enzymes are created at wound site 
    • -COX-2 creates hormones called prostaglandins (PTGs) 
    • -there are a subclass of enzymes that act as mediators of inflammatory anaphylactic, and painful reactions
  30. What are the three cox-2 inhibitors?
    rofecoxib, celecoxib, etoricoxib
  31. What do COX-2 inhibitors do?
    • -derive from NSAIDs
    • -cause less gastrointestinal hermorrhages 
    • -leads to anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects
  32. Explain Rofecoxib
    • -used to treat osteoarthritis, acute pain, and dysmenorrhea
    • -removed due to safety concerns of heart attacks and strokes
  33. Explain Celecoxib
    • -used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis in children, and acute pain 
    • -increase in heart attack, stroke, and death from blood vessel
  34. Explain Etoricoxib
    used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lower back pain, and gout