Card Set Information
unit 1 quiz
What is an ionic compound?
Bond between a metal and non-metal
What is a molecular compound?
Bond between two non-metals
What are the three types of Covalent Bonds?
-Polar Covalent Bonds
-Non-Polar Covalent Bonds
-Coordinate Covalent Bonds
What is a Polar Covalent Bond?
-Bond between two elements who have differing electronegativities
-electronegativity 1.8 to 0.3
-creates a slightly negative and positive end
What is a Non-polar covalent bond?
-formed between non-metals with the same electronegativities
-involves equal sharing of electrons
What is a coordinate covalent bond?
in which both of the shared electrons come from the same atom
ex. NH4 Ammonium
What's the difference between intra and inter molecular forces?
: "strong" covalent and ionic bonds
: "weak" H-bonds, LDP
Name the three Van Der Waals Forces
-Dipole Dipole forces
-london dispersion forces
Explain Dipole dipole forces
-attractive force between polar molecules (bond between two elements with different electronegativities)
-attractions between the positively and negatively charged ends
-stronger than LDP forces
Explain LDP forces
-creates a temporary attractive force
-this results when electrons in adjacent atoms occupy positions that create temporary dipoles in an atom
-this causes 2nd atom to create a weak bond due to slightly negative and positive charges created by temporary dipoles
Explain hydrogen bonds
-the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom (N, O, or F)
-stronger than dipole dipole
-created between hydrogen molecules
What is an organic compound?
Something that always contains carbon, or a carbon bond
-covalently linked to an atom of another type (nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen)
-found in biological systems
What are some examples of organic compounds?
What is an inorganic compound?
Something that does not contain carbon
-are usually synthesized
What are some examples of an inorganic compound?
-Carbon dioxide (considered inorganic because there is no C-C bond)
What are two organic household products?
-used to enhance appearance or odour of human body
-mixed with chemical compounds
-can be natural or synthetic
-for attracting and destroying pests
-chemical or biological agent that deters or kills
What makes produce organic?
-does not mean "pesticide free" or "chemical free"
-organic means that these pesticides came from natural, non-syntheic sources
-pesticides must be applied using equipment that hasn't been used to apply synthetic materials for 3 years (land can't be exposed to synthetic materials)
What is a pain medication?
Used to achieve analgesia - relief from pain or the inability to feel pain
What does PNS stand for? explain what it is
-peripheral nervous system
-made up of nerves and cluster of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
-it's function is to connect central NS with the limbs and organs
-communication between brain and body extremities
What does CNS stand for? explain what it is
-central nervous system
-made up of the brain and spinal cord
-receives information and coordinates activity to all body parts
What does NSAID stand for?
Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs
What do NSAIDs do?
Provide analgesic effects in higher dose with anti-inflammatory effects
-usually non-narcotic, addictive, and are over the counter medications
-used ton treat acute or chronic conditions where pain is present
a disease with a short course of actions (can range from stubbed toe to myocardial infarction)
health condition which has longer lasting effects or a disease that develops over time
ex. asthma, arthritis, HIV, cancer
What are some uses for NSAIDs?
rheumatoid arthritis, mild-to-moderate pain due to inflammation and tissue injury, lower back pain, tennis elbow, headache, migraines, gout-uric acid build up in blood
NSAID inhibit both...
What do cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) do?
-these enzymes are created at wound site
-COX-2 creates hormones called prostaglandins (PTGs)
-there are a subclass of enzymes that act as mediators of inflammatory anaphylactic, and painful reactions
What are the three cox-2 inhibitors?
What do COX-2 inhibitors do?
-derive from NSAIDs
-cause less gastrointestinal hermorrhages
-leads to anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects
-used to treat osteoarthritis, acute pain, and dysmenorrhea
-removed due to safety concerns of heart attacks and strokes
-used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis in children, and acute pain
-increase in heart attack, stroke, and death from blood vessel
used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lower back pain, and gout