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What is an ionic compound?
Bond between a metal and non-metal
What is a molecular compound?
Bond between two non-metals
What are the three types of Covalent Bonds?
- -Polar Covalent Bonds
- -Non-Polar Covalent Bonds
- -Coordinate Covalent Bonds
What is a Polar Covalent Bond?
- -Bond between two elements who have differing electronegativities
- -electronegativity 1.8 to 0.3
- -creates a slightly negative and positive end
What is a Non-polar covalent bond?
- -formed between non-metals with the same electronegativities
- -involves equal sharing of electrons
What is a coordinate covalent bond?
- in which both of the shared electrons come from the same atom
- ex. NH4 Ammonium
What's the difference between intra and inter molecular forces?
- -Intramolecular forces: "strong" covalent and ionic bonds
- -Intermolecular forces: "weak" H-bonds, LDP
Name the three Van Der Waals Forces
- -Dipole Dipole forces
- -london dispersion forces
- -hydrogen bonding
Explain Dipole dipole forces
- -attractive force between polar molecules (bond between two elements with different electronegativities)
- -attractions between the positively and negatively charged ends
- -stronger than LDP forces
Explain LDP forces
- -creates a temporary attractive force
- -this results when electrons in adjacent atoms occupy positions that create temporary dipoles in an atom
- -this causes 2nd atom to create a weak bond due to slightly negative and positive charges created by temporary dipoles
Explain hydrogen bonds
- -the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom (N, O, or F)
- -stronger than dipole dipole
- -created between hydrogen molecules
What is an organic compound?
- Something that always contains carbon, or a carbon bond
- -covalently linked to an atom of another type (nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen)
- -found in biological systems
What are some examples of organic compounds?
- -table sugar
- -methane CH4
What is an inorganic compound?
- Something that does not contain carbon
- -are usually synthesized
What are some examples of an inorganic compound?
- -table salt
- -Carbon dioxide (considered inorganic because there is no C-C bond)
What are two organic household products?
- -used to enhance appearance or odour of human body
- -mixed with chemical compounds
- -can be natural or synthetic
- -for attracting and destroying pests
- -chemical or biological agent that deters or kills
What makes produce organic?
- -does not mean "pesticide free" or "chemical free"
- -organic means that these pesticides came from natural, non-syntheic sources
- -pesticides must be applied using equipment that hasn't been used to apply synthetic materials for 3 years (land can't be exposed to synthetic materials)
What is a pain medication?
Used to achieve analgesia - relief from pain or the inability to feel pain
What does PNS stand for? explain what it is
- -peripheral nervous system
- -made up of nerves and cluster of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
- -it's function is to connect central NS with the limbs and organs
- -communication between brain and body extremities
What does CNS stand for? explain what it is
- -central nervous system
- -made up of the brain and spinal cord
- -receives information and coordinates activity to all body parts
What does NSAID stand for?
Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs
What do NSAIDs do?
- Provide analgesic effects in higher dose with anti-inflammatory effects
- -usually non-narcotic, addictive, and are over the counter medications
- -used ton treat acute or chronic conditions where pain is present
a disease with a short course of actions (can range from stubbed toe to myocardial infarction)
- health condition which has longer lasting effects or a disease that develops over time
- ex. asthma, arthritis, HIV, cancer
What are some uses for NSAIDs?
rheumatoid arthritis, mild-to-moderate pain due to inflammation and tissue injury, lower back pain, tennis elbow, headache, migraines, gout-uric acid build up in blood
NSAID inhibit both...
- -cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)
- -cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)
What do cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) do?
- -these enzymes are created at wound site
- -COX-2 creates hormones called prostaglandins (PTGs)
- -there are a subclass of enzymes that act as mediators of inflammatory anaphylactic, and painful reactions
What are the three cox-2 inhibitors?
rofecoxib, celecoxib, etoricoxib
What do COX-2 inhibitors do?
- -derive from NSAIDs
- -cause less gastrointestinal hermorrhages
- -leads to anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects
- -used to treat osteoarthritis, acute pain, and dysmenorrhea
- -removed due to safety concerns of heart attacks and strokes
- -used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis in children, and acute pain
- -increase in heart attack, stroke, and death from blood vessel
used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lower back pain, and gout