Cardiac Tamponade

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Author:
amanda430
ID:
296116
Filename:
Cardiac Tamponade
Updated:
2015-02-17 15:22:09
Tags:
Cardio
Folders:
Cardiovascular disorders
Description:
Cardiac Tamponade
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  1. What is Cardiac Tamponade?
    • Rapid rise in intrapericardial pressure that impairs the diastolic filling of the heart
    • usually from blood/fluid accumulation in pericardial sac
  2. Define Diastolic
    • lower number
    • mmHg in arteries between heart beats
  3. Define systolic
    • higher number
    • mmHg in arteries when the heart beats
  4. How much fluid can the pericardial sac accumulate?
    200ml-2000ml
  5. What if the pressure increase is slow?
    the pericardial sac will stretch and symptoms/signs will not be evident right away
  6. What are some causes of Cardiac Tamponade?
    • effusion (flowing in) of fluid and blood
    • hemorrhage (trauma or non-traumatic)
    • viral, post irradiation or idiopathic pericarditis
    • acute MI
    • chronic renal failure during dialysis
    • drugs
    • connective tissue disorder
  7. What occurs during Cardiac Tamponade?
    fluid puts compression on the heart which limits blood flow into ventricles and reduces amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction
  8. What are the main signs/symptoms of Cardiac Tamponade?
    • Beck's Triad
    • hypotension with narrowing pulse pressure (low arterial BP)
    • neck vein distension
    • muffled heart sounds
  9. Besides Beck's triad, what are the signs/symptoms of Cardiac Tamponade?
    • orthopnea¬†
    • diaphoresis
    • anxiety
    • restlessness
    • pulsus paradoxus
    • cyanosis
    • weak/rapid peripheral pulse
  10. What is orthopnea?
    dyspnea when lying down
  11. What is diaphoresis?
    sweating
  12. what is pulsus paradoxus?
    inspiratory drop in systolic BP >15mmHG
  13. What is cyanosis?
    blue/purple coloration of the skin
  14. What tests are there for Cardiac Tamponade?
    • Chest X-ray- shows widened mediastinum and enlargement of cardiac silhouette
    • ECG
    • pulmonary artery pressure monitoring
  15. What are the main treatments for Cardiac Tamponade?
    • pericardiocentesis
    • surgical creation of an opening
    • insertion of a drain into the pericardial sac to drain effusion of fluid/blood
  16. Define pericariocentesis
    needle aspiration of pericardial cavity
  17. What is the treatment for hypotension pts with Cardiac tamponade?
    maintain cardiac output by increasing blood volume with IV solution with saline and albumin (protein of blood plasma)

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