C Lit 400 (After Midterm)

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  1. Schlegel) Believes
    all poetry should be romantic

    only romantic poetry can be seen as “real” literature
  2. Schlegel) what is the purpose of romantic poetry?
    namely a fusion of poetry and prose (the ordinary form of spoken or written language, without metrical structure)
  3. Schlegel) Favored the literary form of the fragment. What is this?
    deliberately undeveloped literature

    Incomplete and eternally becoming, the fragment is not only capable of uniting genres and disciplines, but also possesses a reality in itself
  4. Schlegel) what is Irony
    irony is "a form of paradox”; paradox, in turn, is “what is good and great at the same time.”
  5. Schlegel) what is a paradox?
    a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurdbut in reality expresses a possible truth.
  6. Irony: Schlegel

    romantic irony
    leading theorist of the early German romanticism
  7. Schegel) genius
    genius is the absence of reflection, unconscious, theory about the absence of theory.
  8. schegel) how is the genius spoiled?
    By learning
  9. schegel) what does he advocate?
    the combination of peotry and philosophy

  10. Schegel and his friends mix all of the
  11. Schegel) scheller
    the non natural being of culture(this refers to the modern)
  12. Schegel
    • Naïve                   Sentimental
    • Ancient                 Modern
    • intuition                speculation
    • immediacy            mediation
    • senses/sensibility  ideal
    • Finite                   infinite
    • necessity             freedom
    • objectivity           subjectivity

    Naïve is hyper-responsive about feelings

    modern- is always separating himself from the world (modern is mostly negative in this context
  13. Schegel) general view on poetry.
    modern poetry is interested - influenced by personal or selfish motives

    greek poetry is disinterested - unbiased by personal interest or advantage
  14. Schegel) his example of a modern hero
    Hamlet, someone who is indecisive and cannot get satisfaction, cannot act and is self destructive.

    • this was all before reading schiller's essay.
    • All of the things that were described negatively become positive.
  15. Schegel) what happened after he read schiller's essay?
    all of his negatives became positives.

    anticipation, aspiration,
  16. Schegel) romantic poetry
    is a progressive universal poetry the poetry. art and nature. fusion all of the various genres
  17. Schegel) romatic poetry
    is still in the state of becoming. it should be infinite and never be perfected. free as well. all poetry is or should be romantic poetry

    column of separation (sentimental)
  18. Schegel)  romantic Irony
    is the form of paradox. Awareness of its own limitation or separation.

    this is used as a strategy to hint that there is something beyond it.
  19. in Schegel's opinion is aristotles work romantic?
  20. Schegel) post modernism begins with?
  21. Schegel) the poet becomes
    his own critic
  22. Schegel) to write a fragment
    means that you do not know the whole, to know and acknowledge that you do not know the whole, that it is unfinished.

    or he knows very well that there will never be a whole.
  23. Dialectic:  Hegel
    his philosophy is completely systematic cannot take one piece out
  24. Hegel) speculative
  25. Hegel) where does modern idealism begin?
    cogito, sum. thought is being and being is thought. there is no distinction
  26. Hegel) His thoughts on being
    an infinite being must be perfect, a finite being must be imperfect.
  27. Hegel) what is thought?
    thought is being and being is thought.
  28. Hegel) Absolute Subject
    it is referred to as spirit and is basically God.

    God says I think I am.

    everything is the thought of the absolute
  29. Hegel) Descartes
    Subject> God > object
  30. Hegel) what is the relation between subject and object
    subject/object (subject circles back around to itself.)

    self knowledge is key

    the absolute subject most be an object for itself. there needs to be some separation.

    it must see itself outside of itself. this called reflects NOTE both reflection in thinking and in sight.

    this is an alienation, you become an alien of yourself.
  31. Hegel) think reflection door example. didn't like at first then did.
  32. Hegel) what is his goal?
    self consciousness
  33. Hegel) Dialactic
    the unfolding of the being itself. this is the only way to reach truth. - by error (think mirror example)

    this is the process of becoming true
  34. Hegel) negation
    must negate ones self and then negate the negation
  35. hegel)Dialactic  thesis.
    Thesis   In-itself


    the same being negates itself separating the subject(for-itself) from the object(in-itself),


    the negation of the negation in itself for itself
  36. hegel) what is absolute spirit?
    when subjective spirit, objective spirit reconciled and the realism that they are both it.
  37. Hegel's system has three parts. what are they?
    1) logic - what is the essence of something. it is what remains identical in everything. the concept. - the principal of identity - A = A Hegel refers to it as formal logic.

    2)phil of nature - when a tree negates itself it is left with a tree.

    3) phil of spirit - it is about concept through knowledge. it also has three parts: subjective spirit, objective spirit, absolute spirit.

    absolute spirit is when the first two spirits are reconciled and the realism that they are both it.

    • the absolute spirit has three moments
    • art
    • religion
    • philosophy - absolute knowledge

    we are concerned with art

    absolute knowledge is the full system
  38. Hegel) desire
    the need to make something our own
  39. Hegel) his theory of art is an expressiveness theory
    art is an expression of the absolute subject (spirit). art is about color, shapes, sounds, to plays on the senses
  40. Hegel) the system of the fine arts
    1) the ideal -

    • 2) the types of art
    • - symbolic
    • -classical
    • -romantic
    • 3) the arts
    • -architecture
    • -sculpture
    • -romantic art
    • --painting
    • --music
    • --poetry

    fusion of form and content
  41. Hegel) what is totality?
    the product of that process which preserves all of its "moments" as elements in a structure, rather than as stages or phases
  42. Hegel) What are his three kinds of contradiction?
    Being, essence, notion
  43. Hegel) what is absolute knowledge?
    complet self-consciousness and self possession of spirit, is only available at the end point of the thinking process.

    depends on identity of identity and non-identity
  44. Hegel) what is truth?
    only the whole is true.

    Every stage or phase or moment is partial, and therefore partially untrue
  45. Nietzsche) how is the world formed?
    through aesthetic
  46. Nietzsche) the one is supenhower's the one
  47. Nietzsche) the one is
    beyond space, time and individuality
  48. Nietzsche) what is art about?
    not about information, pure aesthetic pleasure. There is no other reason
  49. Nietzsche) who is the true artist?
    the true artist is the one, life. He takes pleasure in the world of performance.

    we are on stage for the ultimate spectator.
  50. Nietzsche) what does he mean when he says that we are mere appearances of the one?
  51. Nietzsche) what is genius?
    the bridge between us and the one
  52. Nietzsche) Why is the tragedy is supreme?
    we can catch a glimpse of the one.
  53. Nietzsche) Why do we need space?
    to see things
  54. Nietzsche) what is the Apollonian?
    what appears in the light of day.

    it refers to the phenomenon (phos=light)

    as mere appearance as mere dream.
  55. Nietzsche) what are beautiful appearances?
    a spectacle, that we see from a distance
  56. Nietzsche) what happens when we are intoxicated?
    we lose our individuality- we become no one and everyone.

    we forget ourselves, and return to the one.
  57. Nietzsche) is a classicist, his concept is similar to Aristotle's enthusiasm
  58. Nietzsche) apollonian is always at a distance and
    remains in the world of appearances while the Dionysiac returns to the one.
  59. Nietzsche) what are two main concepts
    the dream, and intoxication
  60. Nietzsche) Dionysiac is still an aesthetic even thought it is close to the one.
  61. Nietzsche)

    the one ---//---> phenomenon 
                               - dionysiac ---/--->apollinian
    the truly dionysiac art is music, state of trance, music you dance to, you participate and become one with the music.

    lyrical poetry - slightly more dionysiac

    tragedy- middle 

    epic poetry - apollinian - narrator is completely separate

    sculpture - most apollinian - purely visual
  62. Nietzsche) what does he say about the birth of tragedy?
    is born from the chorus
  63. Nietzsche) what is a projection?
    the conscience recognition of ones un-conscience self. this is the chorus.

    there are two projections
  64. tragedy is both a visual phenomenon and music  it is not a fusion or mixture but still both
    a hero is going to die. - fear and pity - pessimistic - truth we are going to die lose our individuality and go back to the black hole. ties back to Aristotle's Katharsis, we go through the experience but don't die.
  65. Jung) what is the psycho analyst's job?
    to unearth the unconscious
  66. Jung) analytical psychology
    theories derived from the analyst of the impaired

    supposed to be strictly medical

    however there is application to other fields

    This is misleading because the central concept itself coms form the literary concept of genius.

    You could argue that this is the medical application of the genius.
  67. unconscious) both shed light of literature
    the nineteenth century of genius is that they create it they are innovative.
  68. Freud) certain acts are mental but

    a dynamic unconscious
  69. Jung) genius' have what?
    unconscious thoughts that form as inspiration.
  70. Unconscious) the act of genius is done unconsciously
    they cannot that help it. it is a natural birth.
  71. 19th century theory was romantic
  72. Frued)
    there is a difference between

    the unconscious of the unconscious

    and the scientific study of the unconscious
  73. Freud) what is the source of the creative process?
    the writer's imagination, fantasy
  74. Freud) pleasure
    we can derive pleasure from fantasy that we cannot get elsewhere

    think of Aristotle's dead body example.
  75. Freud) what does fantasy allow us to do?
    pleasure in things that could not be actually fulfilled in real life
  76. Freud) young women
    are not ambitious when it come to fantasy
  77. Freud) young men
    are ambitious when it comes to fantasy.
  78. Freud) young boy model on fantasy
    • older male role model = identification
    • Female object = libido
  79. Freud) what are more complex thoughts due to?
  80. Heidegger
    his phil is obsessed with the question of being.

    It is concerned with the ultimate metaphysical question. what is being?

    everything else is a branch off of ontology

    he is an objectivist

    he is purely a philosopher
  81. Heidegger) what are we saying when we say "this is"
    this is usually answered in terms of some supreme being.
  82. Heidegger) being
    is not a particular being or thing. his use is non tradition

    there is a distinction

    • vorhandensein
    • being substantial, present a thing, before the hand

    • Da-sein
    • being there, the being that we are ourselves, human being,

    is the only being that is concerned with its own being
  83. Heidegger) ek-sistence and sub-stance
    substance means stable ground while ek-sistence is the opposite
  84. Heidegger) being only has meaning for who?

    the vary notion of being has only meaning in relation to da-sein.
  85. Heidegger) what is vorhandensein?
    Something that is present
  86. Heidegger) what is being not?
    it is not something that is present like vorhandensein.

    it is never present, it is something that you cannot put your hand on.
  87. Heidegger) what is something significant about  being?
    being is time and time is being
  88. Heidegger) what is time?
  89. Heidegger) Is being ever present?
    being will never be present

    being is nothing

    in his version of being the tradition
  90. Heidegger) what is truth?
    aletheia which is concealed.

    it is a presentation of being that is at same time a concealment
  91. Heidegger) what is concealment and concealment
    the oblivion
  92. Heidegger) after being time
    he realized that he was going to need a new language.
  93. Heidegger) denken
    means thinking.

    dichten to act in poetry
  94. Heidegger) what is language?
    an experience

    it is something that we undergo passively, we do not actively control
  95. Heidegger) metalinguistics is bad it is metaphysics.
    what he means is it that our understanding of language is usually metaphysical

    language is something that is present. language because the subject of scientific inquiry
  96. Heidegger) Is poetry passive?
    no, it is language that brings itself to language
  97. Heidegger) language is something that we undergo passively
    language itself never comes to form

    poetry is so important because it is language that brings itself to language. it isn't passive.
  98. Heidegger) a being is not before the word
    it is the word/language that lends being to the being.

    it brings it into being
  99. Heidegger) must undergo the experience of life poetically
  100. Heidegger) what happens when language happens?
  101. Saussure) advocated a synchronic approach to language. a system of interrelated terms
    this was a revolutionary approach to all life sciences
  102. Saussure) what is semiology? semiotics?
    structuralism, it has been extended to many other fields "the science of signs"
  103. Saussure) what is the sign/word?
    a form of representation

    the concept

    same as hegel
  104. Saussure)    signified  -->thing

    inverted vertical arrows on both sides and a line dividing them
    meaning has nothing to do with reality( the real thing)
  105. saussure) what are signs are referred as?
    Concepts, ideas.
  106. Hegel) claims that the linguistic sign is arbitrary it has no relation to the real thing. Saussure) believes that there is a spiritual think representation
    the sig and sig relationship is arbitrary for Saussure)
  107. Saussure) there is no inner relationship between the signifier and the signified everything is conventional *think dog bark example
  108. Saussure) psychologically how would our thoughts be without signs/languge?
  109. saussure) how are concepts created?
    by words, but not just words.

    EX* you need two words or signifiers day and night
  110. Saussure) signs = signifiers
  111. day ---->night
      l              l
    concept    concept
  112. Saussure) what was there before language?
    the realm of sounds and the realm of ideas

    there needs to be distinction in order to function.
  113. Saussure) how does a language produce meaning?
    interdependent terms with different values
  114. Saussure) in language the only difference is without positive terms
    it is only because of the difference of A and B that we have difference.

    difference has to be thought before the terms it differentiates.
  115. Saussure)

    Structuralism) in language the only difference is without positive term
    system of difference between signifiers is the only reason we have meaning
  116. Saussure) you can still understand different language as long as the sound does not change the meaning
  117. Saussure) what is the theory of the two axis of language or any semiotic system?
    the signifier is linear- it unfolds in time- you cannot pronounce a and b simultaneously. succession. - this is the linear character.

    these form a chain. this forms a syntagm- two or more signifiers combined EX* it rained.

    period is the end of a syntagm.

  118. l metaphoric
               l metonymic
  119. Jakobson) metonymic
    is about combined elements

    a hundred sails vs a hundred ships

    dance ---> feet  you used your feet to dance it is part of it.
  120. Jakobson) metaphoric
    something that is completely separate dress vs shirt

    the evening of life

    substitution selecting signifiers of the basis of similarity
  121. Jakobson) we tend to have a preference of one over the other.
    some people tend to associate things differentlyy because of this
  122. Jakobson) structuralism
    is the extension of surreal concept to other fields
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C Lit 400 (After Midterm)
2015-03-12 15:20:04
Lit 400

C Lit 400
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