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all poetry should be romantic
only romantic poetry can be seen as “real” literature
Schlegel) what is the purpose of romantic poetry?
namely a fusion of poetry and prose (the ordinary form of spoken or written language, without metrical structure)
Schlegel) Favored the literary form of the fragment. What is this?
deliberately undeveloped literature
Incomplete and eternally becoming, the fragment is not only capable of uniting genres and disciplines, but also possesses a reality in itself
Schlegel) what is Irony
irony is "a form of paradox”; paradox, in turn, is “what is good and great at the same time.”
Schlegel) what is a paradox?
a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurdbut in reality expresses a possible truth.
leading theorist of the early German romanticism
genius is the absence of reflection, unconscious, theory about the absence of theory.
schegel) how is the genius spoiled?
schegel) what does he advocate?
the combination of peotry and philosophy
Schegel and his friends mix all of the
the non natural being of culture(this refers to the modern)
- Naïve Sentimental
- Ancient Modern
- intuition speculation
- immediacy mediation
- senses/sensibility ideal
- Finite infinite
- necessity freedom
- objectivity subjectivity
Naïve is hyper-responsive about feelings
modern- is always separating himself from the world (modern is mostly negative in this context
Schegel) general view on poetry.
modern poetry is interested - influenced by personal or selfish motives
greek poetry is disinterested - unbiased by personal interest or advantage
Schegel) his example of a modern hero
Hamlet, someone who is indecisive and cannot get satisfaction, cannot act and is self destructive.
- this was all before reading schiller's essay.
- All of the things that were described negatively become positive.
Schegel) what happened after he read schiller's essay?
all of his negatives became positives.
Schegel) romantic poetry
is a progressive universal poetry the poetry. art and nature. fusion all of the various genres
Schegel) romatic poetry
is still in the state of becoming. it should be infinite and never be perfected. free as well. all poetry is or should be romantic poetry
column of separation (sentimental)
Schegel) romantic Irony
is the form of paradox. Awareness of its own limitation or separation.
this is used as a strategy to hint that there is something beyond it.
in Schegel's opinion is aristotles work romantic?
Schegel) post modernism begins with?
Schegel) the poet becomes
his own critic
Schegel) to write a fragment
means that you do not know the whole, to know and acknowledge that you do not know the whole, that it is unfinished.
or he knows very well that there will never be a whole.
his philosophy is completely systematic cannot take one piece out
Hegel) where does modern idealism begin?
cogito, sum. thought is being and being is thought. there is no distinction
Hegel) His thoughts on being
an infinite being must be perfect, a finite being must be imperfect.
Hegel) what is thought?
thought is being and being is thought.
Hegel) Absolute Subject
it is referred to as spirit and is basically God.
God says I think I am.
everything is the thought of the absolute
Subject> God > object
Hegel) what is the relation between subject and object
subject/object (subject circles back around to itself.)
self knowledge is key
the absolute subject most be an object for itself. there needs to be some separation.
it must see itself outside of itself. this called reflects NOTE both reflection in thinking and in sight.
this is an alienation, you become an alien of yourself.
Hegel) think reflection door example. didn't like at first then did.
Hegel) what is his goal?
the unfolding of the being itself. this is the only way to reach truth. - by error (think mirror example)
this is the process of becoming true
must negate ones self and then negate the negation
the same being negates itself separating the subject(for-itself) from the object(in-itself),
the negation of the negation in itself for itself
hegel) what is absolute spirit?
when subjective spirit, objective spirit reconciled and the realism that they are both it.
Hegel's system has three parts. what are they?
1) logic - what is the essence of something. it is what remains identical in everything. the concept. - the principal of identity - A = A Hegel refers to it as formal logic.
2)phil of nature - when a tree negates itself it is left with a tree.
3) phil of spirit - it is about concept through knowledge. it also has three parts: subjective spirit, objective spirit, absolute spirit.
absolute spirit is when the first two spirits are reconciled and the realism that they are both it.
- the absolute spirit has three moments
- philosophy - absolute knowledge
we are concerned with art
absolute knowledge is the full system
the need to make something our own
Hegel) his theory of art is an expressiveness theory
art is an expression of the absolute subject (spirit). art is about color, shapes, sounds, to plays on the senses
Hegel) the system of the fine arts
1) the ideal -
- 2) the types of art
- - symbolic
- 3) the arts
- -romantic art
fusion of form and content
Hegel) what is totality?
the product of that process which preserves all of its "moments" as elements in a structure, rather than as stages or phases
Hegel) What are his three kinds of contradiction?
Being, essence, notion
Hegel) what is absolute knowledge?
complet self-consciousness and self possession of spirit, is only available at the end point of the thinking process.
depends on identity of identity and non-identity
Hegel) what is truth?
only the whole is true.
Every stage or phase or moment is partial, and therefore partially untrue
Nietzsche) how is the world formed?
Nietzsche) the one is supenhower's the one
Nietzsche) the one is
beyond space, time and individuality
Nietzsche) what is art about?
not about information, pure aesthetic pleasure. There is no other reason
Nietzsche) who is the true artist?
the true artist is the one, life. He takes pleasure in the world of performance.
we are on stage for the ultimate spectator.
Nietzsche) what does he mean when he says that we are mere appearances of the one?
Nietzsche) what is genius?
the bridge between us and the one
Nietzsche) Why is the tragedy is supreme?
we can catch a glimpse of the one.
Nietzsche) Why do we need space?
to see things
Nietzsche) what is the Apollonian?
what appears in the light of day.
it refers to the phenomenon (phos=light)
as mere appearance as mere dream.
Nietzsche) what are beautiful appearances?
a spectacle, that we see from a distance
Nietzsche) what happens when we are intoxicated?
we lose our individuality- we become no one and everyone.
we forget ourselves, and return to the one.
Nietzsche) is a classicist, his concept is similar to Aristotle's enthusiasm
Nietzsche) apollonian is always at a distance and
remains in the world of appearances while the Dionysiac returns to the one.
Nietzsche) what are two main concepts
the dream, and intoxication
Nietzsche) Dionysiac is still an aesthetic even thought it is close to the one.
the one ---//---> phenomenon
- dionysiac ---/--->apollinian
the truly dionysiac art is music, state of trance, music you dance to, you participate and become one with the music.
lyrical poetry - slightly more dionysiac
epic poetry - apollinian - narrator is completely separate
sculpture - most apollinian - purely visual
Nietzsche) what does he say about the birth of tragedy?
is born from the chorus
Nietzsche) what is a projection?
the conscience recognition of ones un-conscience self. this is the chorus.
there are two projections
tragedy is both a visual phenomenon and music it is not a fusion or mixture but still both
a hero is going to die. - fear and pity - pessimistic - truth we are going to die lose our individuality and go back to the black hole. ties back to Aristotle's Katharsis, we go through the experience but don't die.
Jung) what is the psycho analyst's job?
to unearth the unconscious
Jung) analytical psychology
theories derived from the analyst of the impaired
supposed to be strictly medical
however there is application to other fields
This is misleading because the central concept itself coms form the literary concept of genius.
You could argue that this is the medical application of the genius.
unconscious) both shed light of literature
the nineteenth century of genius is that they create it they are innovative.
Freud) certain acts are mental but
a dynamic unconscious
Jung) genius' have what?
unconscious thoughts that form as inspiration.
Unconscious) the act of genius is done unconsciously
they cannot that help it. it is a natural birth.
19th century theory was romantic
there is a difference between
the unconscious of the unconscious
and the scientific study of the unconscious
Freud) what is the source of the creative process?
the writer's imagination, fantasy
we can derive pleasure from fantasy that we cannot get elsewhere
think of Aristotle's dead body example.
Freud) what does fantasy allow us to do?
pleasure in things that could not be actually fulfilled in real life
Freud) young women
are not ambitious when it come to fantasy
Freud) young men
are ambitious when it comes to fantasy.
Freud) young boy model on fantasy
- older male role model = identification
- Female object = libido
Freud) what are more complex thoughts due to?
his phil is obsessed with the question of being.
It is concerned with the ultimate metaphysical question. what is being?
everything else is a branch off of ontology
he is an objectivist
he is purely a philosopher
Heidegger) what are we saying when we say "this is"
this is usually answered in terms of some supreme being.
is not a particular being or thing. his use is non tradition
there is a distinction
- being substantial, present a thing, before the hand
- being there, the being that we are ourselves, human being,
is the only being that is concerned with its own being
Heidegger) ek-sistence and sub-stance
substance means stable ground while ek-sistence is the opposite
Heidegger) being only has meaning for who?
the vary notion of being has only meaning in relation to da-sein.
Heidegger) what is vorhandensein?
Something that is present
Heidegger) what is being not?
it is not something that is present like vorhandensein.
it is never present, it is something that you cannot put your hand on.
Heidegger) what is something significant about being?
being is time and time is being
Heidegger) what is time?
Heidegger) Is being ever present?
being will never be present
being is nothing
in his version of being the tradition
Heidegger) what is truth?
aletheia which is concealed.
it is a presentation of being that is at same time a concealment
Heidegger) what is concealment and concealment
Heidegger) after being time
he realized that he was going to need a new language.
dichten to act in poetry
Heidegger) what is language?
it is something that we undergo passively, we do not actively control
Heidegger) metalinguistics is bad it is metaphysics.
what he means is it that our understanding of language is usually metaphysical
language is something that is present. language because the subject of scientific inquiry
Heidegger) Is poetry passive?
no, it is language that brings itself to language
Heidegger) language is something that we undergo passively
language itself never comes to form
poetry is so important because it is language that brings itself to language. it isn't passive.
Heidegger) a being is not before the word
it is the word/language that lends being to the being.
it brings it into being
Heidegger) must undergo the experience of life poetically
Heidegger) what happens when language happens?
Saussure) advocated a synchronic approach to language. a system of interrelated terms
this was a revolutionary approach to all life sciences
Saussure) what is semiology? semiotics?
structuralism, it has been extended to many other fields "the science of signs"
Saussure) what is the sign/word?
a form of representation
same as hegel
Saussure) signified -->thing
inverted vertical arrows on both sides and a line dividing them
meaning has nothing to do with reality( the real thing)
saussure) what are signs are referred as?
Hegel) claims that the linguistic sign is arbitrary it has no relation to the real thing. Saussure) believes that there is a spiritual think representation
the sig and sig relationship is arbitrary for Saussure)
Saussure) there is no inner relationship between the signifier and the signified everything is conventional *think dog bark example
Saussure) psychologically how would our thoughts be without signs/languge?
saussure) how are concepts created?
by words, but not just words.
EX* you need two words or signifiers day and night
Saussure) signs = signifiers
Saussure) what was there before language?
the realm of sounds and the realm of ideas
there needs to be distinction in order to function.
Saussure) how does a language produce meaning?
interdependent terms with different values
Saussure) in language the only difference is without positive terms
it is only because of the difference of A and B that we have difference.
difference has to be thought before the terms it differentiates.
Structuralism) in language the only difference is without positive term
system of difference between signifiers is the only reason we have meaning
Saussure) you can still understand different language as long as the sound does not change the meaning
Saussure) what is the theory of the two axis of language or any semiotic system?
the signifier is linear- it unfolds in time- you cannot pronounce a and b simultaneously. succession. - this is the linear character.
these form a chain. this forms a syntagm- two or more signifiers combined EX* it rained.
period is the end of a syntagm.
is about combined elements
a hundred sails vs a hundred ships
dance ---> feet you used your feet to dance it is part of it.
something that is completely separate dress vs shirt
the evening of life
substitution selecting signifiers of the basis of similarity
Jakobson) we tend to have a preference of one over the other.
some people tend to associate things differentlyy because of this
is the extension of surreal concept to other fields