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  1. Metabolism
    The sum of the chemical reactions in an organism
  2. What are two types of metabolism
    Catabolism and Anabolism
  3. Catabolism
    Provide energy and building blocks for anabolism (breaks down)
  4. Anabolism
    Uses energy and building blocks to build large molecules
  5. Enzymes
    Play an important role, no enzyme reactions would not happen quickly or enough to sustain life
  6. Role of ATP coupling reaction
    • 1.) Simple molecules such as glucose, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids
    • 2.) Anabolic reactions transfer energy from ATP to complex molecules. Heat is released
    • 3.) Complex molecules such as starch, proteins, and lipids
    • 4.) Catabolic reactions transfer energy from complex molecules to ATP.Heat is released

    ATP to ADP + P
  7. ATP in coupling reaction
    Coupling 1 provides for starter material/energy for the other
  8. Enzymes
    Chemical reactions of life cannot proceed without them

    • Catalyst that increase the rate if chemical reactions
    • Lower amount of activation energy
  9. Factors influencing Enzyme activity
    Temperature and pH
  10. Temperature and pH
    denature protein- unfold, not function properly
  11. Effects of temperature on enzyme activity
    Enzymatic activity increases with increasing temperature until the enzyme (protein) is denatured by heat and inactivated. At this point, the reaction rate falls steeply
  12. Effect of pH on enzyme activity
    Enzyme most active at about pH 5.0

    • 0 acidic
    • 10 basic
  13. Two typer of control mechanism for enzymes:
    Competitive inhibition and Noncompetitive inhibition
  14. Competitive inhibition
    • Both molecules (normal substrate and competitive inhibitor with similar shape) compete for active site. 
    • The reaction is blocked b/c competitive inhibitor is incapable of becoming a product
    • Keep reaction from occurring and product from being made
  15. Noncompetitive inhibition
    • Reaction is blocked b/c binding of regulatory molecule in regulatory site (allosteric) changes conformation of active site so that the substrate can not enter.
    • Changes shape of active site so substrate not able to bind there
  16. Enzyme inhibitor:
    Feedback inhibition
  17. Feedback inhibition:
    • Product not made an excess
    • saving energy, not spending on what not needed
  18. Glycolysis
    The oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid produces ATP and NADH
  19. Intermediate step
    • Pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) is oxidized and decarboxylated 
    • CoA in and CO2 out
    • NAD+ pull off hydrogen and NADH electron gained
    • Harvest more electrons
  20. Krebs Cycle:
    • The 3C pryruvate is converted to 2C acetyl CoA in one reaction
    • Acetyl CoA donates 2Cs to the 4C molecule oxaloacetate to form 6C citrate.
    • Citrate is manipulated to yield energy and CO2 and oxaloacetate is regenerated
    • Intermediate molecules ( CO2, GTP) on the wheel can be shunted into other metabolic pathways
  21. Electron Transport Chain
    • A series of carrier molecules that are oxidized and reduced as electrons are passed down the chain.
    • Energy released can be used to produce ATP by chemiosmosis
  22. Chemiosmotic generation of ATP
    Movement of protons (h+) down concentration 

    protons (proteins) move through ATP synthase to make ATP
  23. Aerobic respiration
    The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2)
  24. Anaerobic respiration
    • The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2. 
    • Yields less energy that aerobic respiration because only part of the krebs cycle operates under anaerobic conditions
    • Make by produce instead of O2
  25. Pathway of Glycolysis for Eukaryote:
  26. Pathway of Gylcolysis for Prokaryote
  27. Pathway of intermediate step for eukaryote
  28. Pathway for intermediate step for prokaryote
  29. Pathway of Krebs cycle for eukaryote
    mitochondrial matrix
  30. Pathway for krebs cycle for prokaryote
  31. Pathway for ETC of eukaryote
    Mitochondrial inner membrane
  32. Pathway for ETC of prokaryote
    Plasma membrae- H+ in between the plasma membrane and cell wall
  33. Fermentation
    • Release energy from oxidation of organic molecules
    • Does not require oxygen
    • Does not use the Krebs cycle or ETC
    • Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor

    Glycolysis in a loop, goes/release to lactic acid or fermentation
  34. Fermentation test:
    Phenol Red test- if organism is able to ferment then red to yellow, find out what carbohydrate can use. Help identify unknown
Card Set:
2015-03-30 22:37:35

intro to health
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