Integumentary System

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Author:
mallory.pfaff
ID:
296135
Filename:
Integumentary System
Updated:
2015-02-17 20:18:43
Tags:
Anatomy
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Description:
skin and glands
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  1. Layers of Skin
    • 1.Epidermis
    • 2.Dermis
    • 3.Hypodermis
  2. Epidermis
    • 1.Epithelium
    • 2.Superficial, thin
    • 3.4 cell types:
    • a.Keratinocytes (make, fill themselves with
    • keratin)
    • b.Melanocytes – melanin pigments (protect
    • from UV rays)
    • c.Merkel cells-sensory cell (receptor)
    • d.Langerhans (epidermal dendritic) cells;
    • phagocytesà
    • present to immune system
  3. Layers of Epidermis
    • a)Basal – deepest, carcinoma (mitosis
    • happens here, forms skin cells; 1 cells layer thick) 
    • b)Spinosum – 2nd
    • deepest (cells begin to flatten out; squamous cell carcinoma)
    • c)Granulosum – flat cells, most superficial
    • live layer
    • d)Corneum – thickest, dead cells (keratin
    • and lipid) 

    4.Basal lamina
  4. Layers of Dermis
    • 1. Papillary: Loose (areolar) connective tissue
    • 2.Reticular: Dense (irregular) connective tissue
  5. Skin Functions
    • 1.Barriers
    • •Chemical
    • •Physical
    • •Biological

    • 2.Temperature Regulation (always sweat a
    • little-variess
    • amount due to body temp; changing blood flow)

    3.Sensation – cutaneous sensory receptors

    4.Metabolism – vitamin D production

    • 5.Blood Reservoir – skin can handle low
    • levels of blood flow for some time

    6.Excretion – small amount of N compounds
  6. Subcutaneous Layer
    • A.Superficial fascia = hypodermis
    • 1.Movement
    • 2.Fat store
    • 3.Anchor skin
    • 4.Hypodermic injections
  7. Hair
    a.Epithelial cells in follicle

    1.Sensory receptors at base (nerves)

    • 2.smooth muscle (controls position of hair)
    •     -sympathetic
    • autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  8. Sweat Glands
    • 2 types
    • 1.“apocrine” –few, large
    • •Location:axillary and groin regions
    • •Fatty substances and protein + water
    • •Do not produce odor, odor comes from bacteria

    • 2.merocrine –many, 99% H2O
    • •Thermoregulation
    • •Salt
    • and waste exretion
    • •Controlled by sympathetic ANS
  9. Glands
    • Sebaceous
    • Sweat
    • Mammary
    • Ceruminous-ear wax
  10. Sebaceous
    • –oily lipids, lubricate  
    • -most around  
    • -hormones controls these glands
  11. Mammary
    • •Produce milk
    • •Modified sweat glands
    • •secretion controlled by oxytocin from hypothalamus of brain

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