Skeletal System

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Author:
mallory.pfaff
ID:
296140
Filename:
Skeletal System
Updated:
2015-02-17 21:03:43
Tags:
Anatomy
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Skeletan
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  1. Types of Cartilage
    • Hyaline
    • Fibrocartilage
    • Elastic
  2. Hyaline Cartilage
    • 1.Most common
    • 2.Closely packed collagen, smooth and firm
    • 3.Bone ends (articular) and fetal skeleton
  3. Elastic
    • (collagen and elastic fibers)
    • 1. Tough and flexible 
    • 2. External Ear
  4. Fibrocartilage
    • 1.Networked collagen and durable
    • 2.Intervertebral discs, and menisci
  5. Characteristics of Cartilage
    • 1.No innervation, avascular (no vessels)
    • 2.Perichondrium-outer covering, support and nutrition
    • -Aroundmost (not articular surfaces)
  6. Bones
    • *Key is crystals (salt) attached to protein fibers (collagen)
    • *Cells
    • *Osteoblasts– build
    • *Matrix proteins, mineralization
    • *Osteoclasts – destroy
    • *Osteocytes – maintain
    • *Osteoprogenitor cells – mitotic (stem cells)
  7. Matrix of Bone
    • *Collagen
    • *Mineral crystals  (calcium phosphates, etc)-rigidity
    • *Ground substance
  8. Compact Bone
    • a.Outer surface, dense and solid
    • b.Cells and matrix into osteons
    • --Pillars of layers
    • --Opposite orientation collagen fibers 
    • c.Resist forces parallel to surface and twisting
  9. Spongy Bone
    • a.Trabeculae for framework
    • b.Lightweight, multiple force directions
    • c.Inside and ends of bones
  10. Periosteum
    • 1.Covering of CT, blasts, and clasts
    • 2.N and blood supply
    • 3.Growth and remodeling, fusion with CT framework (ligaments, tendons, fascia)
  11. Endosteum
    • 1.inner covering
    • --CT, blasts and clasts
  12. Skeleton Formation
    • 1.Begins as other tissue
    • a.Membrane
    • b.Cartilage

    • 2.Replacement = ossification
    • a.Intramembranous –  skull+
    • b.Endochondral –  most others
    • --Diaphysis – primary ossification center 
    • --Epiphyses – secondary centers
    • --Grow together
    • --Leaves a plate between
  13. Postnatal Growth
    • 1.Interstitial
    • (inside) & appositional (outside) (increases in bone length and thickening)

    • 2.Increasing length by interstitial growth
    • a.More cartilage at epiphyseal plates
    • b.Cartilage ossifies (conversion)
    • c.Plates fuse at 18-21 years

    3.All regulated by growth and sex hormones
  14. Remodeling
    • 1.Increases
    • from mechanical stress 
    • --Needs proteins, vitamin A, C, D and minerals

    • 2.Decreases without mechanical stress
    •   Enzymes and HCl (osteoclasts)
    • 3.Create  bone land marks

    • 4.Also hormonal control
    • a.Blood monitored for: Ca++
    • b.Low triggers parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • c.PTH Stimulates osteoclasts
    • d.Calcitonin (oppose PTH, not very active in adults)
    • e.Function: maintains levels (9-11 mg/dl)

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