Chemistry Chapter 4

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misol
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296145
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Chemistry Chapter 4
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2015-02-17 22:17:33
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chemistry chapter 4
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  1. valence electron
    • Be    [He]2s^2  2 is the valence electron 
    • Group number corresponds with valence electron
  2. Nuclear Charge
    • Z
    • number of protons in an atom
  3. Effective Nuclear Charge
    • Zeff 
    • magnitude of positive charge the electron can feel 

    because distance from nucleus and electron "shielding"

    only H Z = zeff
  4. Zeff equation
    Zeff = Z - σ (shielding constant)
  5. Core electron vs valence electron 
    Which is more effective at shielding?
    Core b/c closer to nucleus so pulled in more thus shielding the nucleus from the other nucleus
  6. Zeff Trend
    L → R, Zeff ↑
  7. Atomic Radius
    • Metallic Radius - middle of atom to middle of atom
    • Covalent Radius - atoms overlap and its middle to middle
  8. Atomic Radius Trend
    • L → R, atomic radius ↓
    • b/c more positive (and negative) charges which makes attraction stronger (Zeff ↑)

    • Top → Bottom, Atomic Radius ↑
    • b/c n↑ and distance from the nucleus ↑
  9. Ionization Energy (IE)
    minimum energy (KJ/mol) required to remove 1 mole of e- from 1 mole of an atom in the gas phase 

    Cation forms
  10. Cation
    forms positive charge 

    valence electron has been TAKEN
  11. Ionization Energy Trend
    • L → R, Zeff ↑, IE↑
    • Top → Bottom, IE ↓ (because further from nucleus)

    note, if have higher IE, less likely for an e- to be removed
  12. harder to remove IE
    • paired electrons are harder to remove
    • also harder to remove if its a half filled set
  13. Electron Affinity (EA)
    • energy released when an atom in the gas phase accepts an electron 
    • anion form
  14. anion
    forms negative charge

    GIVEN a valence electron
  15. Electron Affinity Trend
    L → R, EA ↑

    Note: ↑in EA means its more likely for an atom to accept an e- 

    if Zeff ↑, then adding more protons and it becomes easier to add e-
  16. Metallic Character Trend
    • L → R, MC ↓
    • Top to bottom, MC ↑
  17. Electron Configuaration for Ions
    Monoatomic ions - single atoms that's cation or anion
  18. Isoelectronic
    when atoms "become" like noble gases
  19. D block Ions
    • Zn2+
    • Ag+
    • Cu+/Cu2+
    • Fe2+/Fe3+
  20. Ionic Radius Cation
    • e- - e- repulsion ↓
    • less shielding 
    • ionic radius ↓
  21. Ionic Radius Anion
    • e- - e- repulsion ↑
    • more shielding 
    • ionic radius increases ↑
  22. Ionic Radius Trend
    • L → R, ionic radius ↓
    • Top → Bottom, ionic radius ↑

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