accumulation of noninflammatory fluid in the pericardial sac
composition of usual fluids:
What is cardiac tamponade, what are the symptoms
when fluid accumulation in pericardial sac is large/sudden it can lead to external compression of the heart chambers such that filling is impaired
-compensatory ^ in HR
What is percarditis?
acute or chronic inflammation of pericardium
What is Acute pericarditis?
idiopathic, presumed viral
-uncomplicated form resolves spontaneously
-complicated forms: pericardial effusion, or persistent/recurrent inflammation
-presents as chest pain
What are the 2 forms of chronic pericarditis?
What is adhesive mediastinopericarditis?
-pericardial sac is destroyed and external aspect of heart adheres to surrounding mediastinal structures
What is contrictive pericarditis?
type of chronic pericarditis
-pericardial sac become dense, nonelastic, fibrous, and scarred
name 2 primary pathologic processes of differ congenital heart anomalies?
-shunting of blood thru abnormal pathways in heart/great vessels
-obstruction to blood flow bcuz of abnormal narrowing, interfering with blood flow leading to ^workload of affected chamber
development of the following contributes to heart defects.
-main outflow tract to pulmonic and aortic arteries
What is the common heart disorder in children?
congenital heart disease
-0.8% of all live births
may attributed to:
-maternal rubella during 1st trim
-exposure to cardiac teratogens (smoke)
-advanced maternal age
What is acyanotic congenital defects? Name them
disorders that result in L to R shunting of blood or obstruction to flow are generally acyanotic
-atrial septal defect
-venricular septal defect
-patent dustuc arteriosus
coarctation of aota
-pulmonary and aortic stenosis/atresia
What does ASD stand for
atrial septal defect?
What is ASD
atrial septal defects occur at location of foramen ovale, causing L to R shunt
-long-term ^ in pulmonary blood flow may eventually lead to pulmonary hypertension, R ventricular hypertrophy, and reversal of flow to a R-to L shunt
What is ventricular septal defect? (VSD)
common congenital cardiac anomaly
-locatedi n membranous septum, near bundle of His
-^ pulmonary blood flow result in pulmonary hypertension, R ventricular hypertrophy, and reversal of the shunt (which is initially is L to R due to higher pressure naturally found in L ventricle compared to R ventricle)
What is Patent ductus Arteriosus?
cause low blood oxygen tension may contribute to continued patency (ID by harsh grinding systolic murmur/thrill)
results in pulmonary hypertension, and can lead to R sided HF
What is pulmonary atresia?
blood must enter the lungs by traveling thru a septal opening and a patent ductus arteriosus
What is pulmonary stenosis
usually due to abnormal fusion of the valvular cusps and can lead to R ventricular hypertrophy
What is cyanotic congenital defects
disorders that result in R to L shunting of blood result in cyanosis
What are the disorders of cyanotic congenital defects