Chapter 18 Part 2

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Chapter 18 Part 2
2015-02-18 03:23:14
alterations n cardiac function
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  1. What is pericardial effusion
    accumulation of noninflammatory fluid in the pericardial sac 

    • composition of usual fluids: 
    • -serous 
    • -serosanguineous
    • -chylous 
    • -blood
  2. What is cardiac tamponade, what are the symptoms
    when fluid accumulation in pericardial sac is large/sudden it can lead to external compression of the heart chambers such that filling is impaired 

    • symptoms: 
    • -reduced SV
    • -compensatory ^ in HR
  3. What is percarditis?
    acute or chronic inflammation of pericardium
  4. What is Acute pericarditis?
    • idiopathic, presumed viral 
    • -uncomplicated form resolves spontaneously 
    • -complicated forms: pericardial effusion, or persistent/recurrent inflammation 
    • -presents as chest pain
  5. What are the 2 forms of chronic pericarditis?
    • adhesive mediastinopericarditis
    • constrictive pericarditis
  6. What is adhesive mediastinopericarditis?
    • Chronic pericarditis
    • -pericardial sac is destroyed and external aspect of heart adheres to surrounding mediastinal structures
  7. What is contrictive pericarditis?
    • type of chronic pericarditis
    • -pericardial sac become dense, nonelastic, fibrous, and scarred
  8. name 2 primary pathologic processes of differ congenital heart anomalies?
    • -shunting of blood thru abnormal pathways in heart/great vessels 
    • -obstruction to blood flow bcuz of abnormal narrowing, interfering with blood flow leading to ^workload of affected chamber
  9. development of the following contributes to heart defects.
    • -atrial septum
    • -ventricular septum
    • -main outflow tract to pulmonic and aortic arteries
    • -valve
  10. What is the common heart disorder in children?
    • congenital heart disease 
    • -0.8% of all live births 

    • may attributed to: 
    • -maternal rubella during 1st trim
    • -exposure to cardiac teratogens (smoke)
    • -alcohol
    • -genetic influences
    • -advanced maternal age
  11. What is acyanotic congenital defects?  Name them
    disorders that result in L to R shunting of blood or obstruction to flow are generally acyanotic 

    • disorders:
    • -atrial septal defect 
    • -venricular septal defect 
    • -patent dustuc arteriosus 
    • coarctation of aota 
    • -pulmonary and aortic stenosis/atresia
  12. What does ASD stand for
    atrial septal defect?
  13. What is ASD
    • atrial septal defects occur at location of foramen ovale, causing L to R shunt 
    • -long-term ^ in pulmonary blood flow may eventually lead to pulmonary hypertension, R ventricular hypertrophy, and reversal of flow to a R-to L shunt
  14. What is ventricular septal defect? (VSD)
    • common congenital cardiac anomaly
    • -locatedi n membranous septum, near bundle of His 
    • -^ pulmonary blood flow result in pulmonary hypertension, R ventricular hypertrophy, and reversal of the shunt (which is initially is L to R due to higher pressure naturally found in L ventricle compared to R ventricle)
  15. What is Patent ductus Arteriosus?
    • cause low blood oxygen tension may contribute to continued patency (ID by harsh grinding systolic murmur/thrill)
    • results in pulmonary hypertension, and can lead to R sided HF
  16. What is pulmonary atresia?
    blood must enter the lungs by traveling thru a septal opening and a patent ductus arteriosus
  17. What is pulmonary stenosis
    usually due to abnormal fusion of the valvular cusps and can lead to R ventricular hypertrophy
  18. What is cyanotic congenital defects
    disorders that result in R to L shunting of blood result in cyanosis
  19. What are the disorders of cyanotic congenital defects
    • -tetralogy of fallot
    • -transposition of great arteries 
    • -truncus arteriosus
    • -tricuspid atresia
  20. Teralogy of fallot
    • 4 features.
    • -ventricular septal defect 
    • -aorta positioned above ventricular septal opening 
    • -pulmonary stenosis that obstructs R ventricular outflow 
    • -R ventricular hypertrophy
  21. Transposition of Great arteries
    • aorta arises from R ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from L ventricle 
    • -results in 2 separate, noncommunicating circulations 
    • -incompatible with life unless mixing of blood occurs thru other defects (shunts)
  22. Truncus arteriosus
    • failaure of pulmonary artery and aorta to separate; 
    • results in formation of one large vessel that receives blood from both R and L ventricles 
    • results in systemic cyanosis 
    • -high pulmonary blood flow may cause pulmonary hypertension and R ventricular hpertrophy
  23. Tricuspid atresia
    • -associated with underdevelopment of R ventricle and an atrial septal defect 
    • -allows blood to bypass R ventricle 
    • -patent dustuc arteriosus is required to perfuse lungs 
    • -cyanosis present at birth, mortality high