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What is antiquarianism?
The first archaeologists were little more than collectors and searching for curiosities, buried treasure, and intellectual enlightenment.
is the study of all aspects of past human experience primarily using the material (physical) remains of this behavior.
the scientific study of humanity in the broadest possible sense.
perhaps closest to cultural anthropology (or specifically, __________) in its approach
archaeological subdiscipline of ethnoarchaeology,
Those who specialize in the study of ancient inscriptions are known as ________ --a field that obviously has close links to archaeology.
refers to the period of human history extending back before (pre) the time of written. s the enormous span of human cultural evolution that extends back at least 2.5 million years.
is archaeology amplified by written records. Such records can take many forms—Egyptian or Maya hieroglyphs, wedge-like cuneiform script punched onto clay tablets, Roman records written on scrolls or wax tablets, or medieval parchments, all these quite apart from the voluminous archives of, say colonial North America or nineteenth-century European cities.
all parts of the world comes about because of the need to preserve archaeological sites, the archives of the past, in the face of industrial activity of all kinds. Such field and laboratory work, called _______. legally mandated.
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)
study prehistoric times, from the time of the earliest human beings up to the frontiers of documentary history.
Prehistoric archaeologists (prehistorians)
their dozens of specialties including _______which is studied by experts in the culture and artifacts of the earliest human beings.
; the study of the remains of the great classical civilizations of Greece and Rome. Traditionally, they have paid much attention to objects and buildings, but many are now beginning to study the types of economic, settlement, and social problems of interest to prehistoric archaeologists.
the study of archaeological sites from periods for which written records exist.
Historical (text-aided) archaeology
ire among the many specialists who work on specific civilizations or time periods. These specialties require unusual skills. ________must acquire a fluent knowledge of hieroglyphs to help them study the ancient Egyptians, & ________experts on the Assyrians of ancient Iraq, must be conversant with cuneiform script.
Egyptologists and Assyriologists
the study of ancient human behavior and pathology through biological data, such as human bones, isotopes, and DNA, is assuming a central role in today's archaeology.
the study of sites and ancient shipwrecks on the seafloor and lake bottoms, even sunken fur-trading canoes capsized by rapids in Minnesota streams.
he study of the archaeology of a variety of ethnic groups living in Syro-Palestine, linking accounts in the Bible and Canaanite literature with archaeological sites in southwestern Asia.
study buildings and other structures dating to the Industrial Revolution or later, such as Victorian railway stations, old cotton plantations, windmills, and even slum housing in England?
a new form of forensic science that uses techniques developed within archaeology within a legal context (predominately medicolegal).
The expression _________means, quite simply, the description of human cultures extending thousands of years into the past.
1. Conserving and managing the world's archaeological sites for the future.
2. Studying sites and their contents in a context of time and space to reconstruct and describe long sequences of human culture. This descriptive activity reconstructs culture history.
3. Reconstructing past lifeways.
4. Explaining why cultures change or why cultures remain the same over long periods of time.
5. Understanding sites, artifacts, food remains, and other aspects of the archaeological record and their relation to our contemporary world.
what are these?
Goals of Archaeology
three groups, representing ages of stone, bronze, and iron, and using finds in previously undisturbed graves as a basis for his classification. A technological subdividing of the prehistoric past, this system gave archaeologists a broad context within which their own finds could be placed, a framework for dividing a prehistoric past.
Christian Jurgensen Thomsen
perspective, articulated by pioneering anthropologists Sir Edward B. Tylor (1832-1917) and Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881), fitted anthropological and archaeological data into set stages through which all human societies progressed. According to this view, all human societies had the potential to evolve from a simple hunter-gatherer way of life to a state of literate (European) civilization which nineteenth-century researchers saw as the end point of this evolutionary progression.
unilinear cultural evolution
the process by which new ideas or cultural traits spread from one person to another or from one group to another, often over long distances.
theoretical approach to cultural anthropology is referred to as __________. It influenced how researchers interpreted archaeological data.
the description, chronological, and spatial ordering of archaeological data became the sole objective of archaeological research and it remained so until the 1950s.
They consist of a distinct artifact assemblage that distinguishes the culture of the inhabitants of a particular time and place. - the lowest unit in the hierarchy.
are cultural units represented by different levels of the same site or like components on different sites, all sharing a distinctive artifact assemblage within a well-defined chronological bracket.
_______ areas can be thought of as the archaeological equivalent of the broad ethnographic culture areas identified by early anthropologists.
large areas can be broken down into _______, where differences within the culture of an area are sufficiently distinctive to separate one subarea from another.
American archaeologists use two units that synthesize archaeological data over wide areas: ______ & _____.
tradition & Horizons
describe artifact types, assemblages of tools, architectural styles, economic practices, or art styles that distinguish an area for a long period of time.
represented by distinctive artifacts and cultural traits that crosscut traditions in neighboring areas.
The Three-Age System could not be used, and archaeologists initially had difficulty establishing chronologies for the archaeological record. The most logical way to do this was to work backward in time from historically known Native American sites into prehistoric times, a method that came to be known as :
direct historical approach
. Very few actual concrete features of culture, though, would appear in a similar, regular order repeated again and again. In other words, ________, had proceeded on many courses and at different rates, not just on one universal track.
multilinear cultural evolution
Steward assumed that certain basic culture types would develop in similar ways under similar conditions. Calling his study of environment and culture change cultural ecology, Steward laid down three principles (1955):
1. Similar adaptations may be found in different cultures in similar environments.
2. Differences and changes during periods of cultural development in any area can either add to societal complexity or result in completely new cultural patterns
3. Reconstructing past lifeways.
4. Conserving and managing the world's archaeological sites for the future.
5. Explaining why cultures change or why cultures remain the same over long periods of time.
6. Differences and changes during periods of cultural development in any area can either add to societal complexity or result in completely new cultural patterns.
7. No culture has ever achieved an adaptation to its environment that has remained unchanged over any length of time.
1, 2, & 7
studies the whole picture of the way in which human populations adapt to and transform their environments.
The cultural models are inevitable variation, __________, id the three classic processes— invention, diffusion, and migration.
is somewhat similar to the biological phenomenon of genetic drift, except that it concerns change in human societies rather than gene frequencies in populations.
> a new idea that either modifies an old idea or series of ideas or creates a completely new concept; it may come about by accident or by intentional research.
is the actual movement of human populations, whether large or small. It may be peaceful or it can be the result of deliberate aggression, invasion, and conquest.
__________ archaeology focuses on the cultural process and the explanation of culture change . It also brings an explicitly scientific methodology to the interpretation of archaeological data. rely on the scientific method to formulate testable hypotheses and proceed to the gathering of new data to test them.
explicit focus on hypothesis testing and the identification of laws of culture dynamics, initially advocated by Binford, is rarely used now.
important aspect of processual archaeology which involves thinking of human cultures as complicated agglomerates of components, such as technology, subsistence strategies, and social organization, that interacted with each other and, in turn, with lie larger environmental systems of which they were part. It involves three basic models of culture change: general systems theory, ; cultural ecology, multilinear cultural evolution.
part of a more holistic archaeology. a sometimes extreme antidote to its predecessor—in general terms, a reaction against the relatively anonymous, processual approach, which emphasized cultural processes and adaptation to the environment over groups of people and individuals.
1. Meaning is more important than materialism. No longer can archaeologists interpret the past in terms of purely ecological, technological, and other material considerations. Culture is interactive. In other words, people are actors who create, manipulate, and remake the world they live in.
2. Archaeologists must critically examine their social responsibilities, looking beyond their specialties to the broader aims of the discipline and to issues of moral and emotional involvement with the past in modern society. How does the public interact with the past?
3. There are many perspectives on ancient society that have been neglected, among them those of women, ethnic minorities, and anonymous, often illiterate commoners—often called "people without history." In other words, the past has many voices, not just one (Hodder, 1999).
who made these important contributions?
while much of processual archaeology may have grappled with human adaptation to the environment, the interpretation of past ideology, religion, and worldview are of central concern to the _____________.
_____________ tssumes that because archaeologists are actors in contemporary culture, they must have some active impact on society.
____________is derived from Marxist perspectives, but the role of subsistence and subsistence technology as the principal source of sociocultural phenomena is emphasized.
_______covers the spectrum of human behavior, especially religion and belief, but also the development and expression of human consciousness, sometimes called the "archaeology of mind."
__________ treat human cultures as shared symbolic structures that are cumulative creations of the human mind.
The archives of this past are archaeological sites and artifacts, food remains, .and many other categories of finds that make up the _______ ____________.
__________consist of any material remains of human activity—a scatter of broken bones, a ruined house, a gold mask, a vast temple plaza.
a. archaeological record.
b. Archaeological data
b. Archaeological data
The factors that create the historical and archaeological records are known as ______ _______ _________. those agencies, natural or cultural, that have transformed the archaeological record since a site was abandoned.
__________are those in which human behavior has transformed the archaeological record. They can vary widely in their impact and intensity.
_________.re the events and processes of the natural environment that affect the archaeological record.
the physical substance that surrounds the find.
The chemical and physical characteristics of the matrix can have a profound effect not only on the ____________. (the precise three-dimensional position of the find in the matrix as recorded by the archaeologist) of an archaeological find but also on its context and association with other subjects.
-nonartifactual materials, such as food residues and other finds that shed light on human activities.
______reasoning takes specific observations and makes a generalization from them.
_________reasoning follows from hypotheses formulated through induction. That is, the researcher postulates specific implications from the generalized hypotheses.
simply defined as a working plan for a research project, whether simple or complex, is intended to direct the execution of an archaeological investigation.
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