Where does the majority of water resorption in the nephron occur?
In the proximal convoluted tubule.
Golden yellow or brownish cytoplasmic granules are characteristic of?
Either lipofuscin or hemosiderinThe prussian blue stain can differentiate the two
What does the Prussian blue stain detect?
The presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages in pulmonary alveoli indicates?
Chronic elevation of pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressures (Pulmonary edema) which is usually the result ofLEFT HEART FAILURE.
What causes the formation of heart failure cells?
Left-sided heart failure→ ⇧pulmonary venous pressure →⇧ leakage of iron-containing proteinsand RBCs into the intersitum → Macrophages phagocytize the iron-containing proteins and convert them to hemosiderin
Alkaline phosphatase is a tumor marker for which diseases?
Metastases to: Bone, Liver,
Paget disease of bone
Seminoma (placental ALP)
Antimitochondrial autoantibodies are diagnostic of?
Primary biliary cirrhosis
What causes Primary biliary cirrhosis?
Autoimmune destruction in whichLYMPHOCYTIC INFILTRATE and GRANULOMASdestroy the intralobular bile ducts.This results in cholestasis (↓bile flow).
This disease is characterized by autoimmune destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts and cholestatis (decreased bile flow).
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Describe the histological findings of Alcoholic hepatitis.
Hepatocellular swelling and necrosis
Mallory bodies (intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions of damaged keratin filaments)
What are Mallroy bodies and in which disease are they characteristic of?
Intracytoplasmic eosinphilic inclusions of damaged keratin filaments
Intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions of damaged keratin filaments are characteristic of?
Hepatocellular swelling and necrosis, mallory bodies, neutrophilic infiltration and fibrosis are characteristic of?
Describe the liver changes in Reye syndrome.
Fatty liver (microvesicular steatosis)
In this disease liver biopsy demonstrates a microvesicular fatty change
Describe the liver changes in Budd-Chiari syndrome
Thrombosis or compression of hepatic veins with centrilobular congestion and necrosis.
Centrilobular congestion and necrosis are characteristic of?
Degeneration of the posterior column and spinocerebellar tract is characteristic of?
Vitamin E deficiency
What are the effects of Vitamin E deficiency on the nervous system?
Degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts and dorsal/ posterior column.
Ataxia, dysarthria, loss of both position and vibration sensation.
What is dysarthria?
Impaired movement of the muscles used for speech production
Poliomyelitis causes damage to which part of the spinal cord?
Destruction of anterior horns.
Desctruction of the anterior horns of the spinal cord is characteristic of?
What are the low-molecular-weight heparins?
What is the MOA of Enoxaparin?
Activates antithrombin III which binds to factor 10a and stops factor 10a from converting prothrombin to thrombin.
What is the function of t-PA?
Converts plasminogen to plasmin which breaks down fibrin.
What is factor II?
What is an Accessory nipple?
Are usually asymptomatic but may swell or become tender along with the other breast tissue before or during menes, during pregnancy and lactation.
What are Ephelides/ Ephelis?
↑melanin pigment, normal number of melanocytes
Describe the IP3/DAG secondary messenger system.
1. Hormone binds to Gq receptor.
2. Phospholipase Cis activated.
3. Phospholipase C degrades PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, bisphosphate) to IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate) and DAG (diacylglycerol).
4. IP3 increases intracellular calcium, and elevated intracellular calcium activates protein kinase C.DAG also activates protein kinase C.
Where are enhancers located?
Enhancers/ represors may be located anywhere upstram, downstream or even within the transcribed gene.
Where is the TATA or Hogness box located?
25 nucleotides upstream
This promoter region is located 25 nucleotides upstream.
Where is the CAAT box located?
70 to 80 nucleotides upstream
This promoter region is located 70 to 80 bases upstream
What are the effects of timolol in the treatment of glaucoma?
↓aqueous humor production
by theciliary epithelium
What are the effects of Latanoprost in the treatment of glaucoma?
↑outflow of aqueous humor
Which prostaglandins are used in the treatment of glaucoma? How do they work?