The lungs

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The lungs
2015-02-18 13:44:06
Lungs Anatomy Function

Vet Med - Module 9
Show Answers:

  1. Where do the primary bronchi enter each lung?
    At the hilus
  2. Where does the tracheal bronchus enter the lung?  In what species is it present?
    • In the cranial lobe of the right lung
    • Present in ruminants and pigs
  3. At what level of branching of the trachea is the cartilage support lost?
    At the bronchioles and terminal bronchioles
  4. What structure brings deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs?
    The pulmonary trunk (left and right pulmonary arteries)
  5. What structure brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart?
    The pulmonary veins
  6. What structures supply the lung tissue with oxygenated blood?  What structure are they a direct branch of?
    The bronchial arteries.  They are a direct branch of the aorta.
  7. What happens to the cartilage rings when you move into intrapulmonary/lobar/segmental bronchi?
    They become irregular plates
  8. Where is the smooth muscle located in intrapulmonary/lobar/segmental bronchi?
    In the submucosa, between the cartilage and mucosa.
  9. What effect does sympathetic/parasympathetic innervation have on the smooth muscle in segmental bronchi?
    • Sympathetic - relaxation
    • Parasympathetic - constriction
  10. What does BALT stand for and where it is located?
    Bronchial associated lymphoid tissue.  Located in the in lamina propria
  11. True or false: cartilage is present in bronchioles?
  12. True or false: seromucus glands are present in bronchioles?
  13. True or false: smooth muscle is present in bronchioles?
  14. What cells are dominant in bronchioles?
    Clara cells
  15. What is the preposed functions of clara cells?
    • Protection/detoxifying
    • Production of surface surfactant 
    • Stem cell
  16. Describe the peribronchial sheath
    The peribronchial sheath is formed by bronchial arteries which give rise to a circular arrangement surrounding the bronchus and pulmonary artery.  This arrangement means that when pressure is exerted on the sheath and the vessels inside are protected from the effects of the expanding lung.
  17. Describe the arrangement of terminal airways
    Terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory which have a transitional role and are identical to terminal bronchioles except the smooth muscle is discontinuous and they have alveoli in their walls.  Alveolar ducts have an increased number of alveoli in their walls and communicate with alveolar sacs.  They have no smooth muscle and are supported by elastic.  Several alveoli can be associated with an alveolar sac.  It is lined by simple squamous epithelium and has no smooth muscle.
  18. What are the two main cell types present in an alveoli?
    Type I and type II pneumocytes
  19. What is the role of type I and II pneumocytes?
    • Type I make up the wall of the alveolus.  Play a role in gas exchange.
    • A small percentage of type II make surfactant which reduces surface tension and prevents collapse.
  20. What cell type are always present in the lung and are involved in defence?
    Alveolar macrophages
  21. What makes up the blood gas barrier?
    Type I and II pneumocytes, squamous epithelia, interstitium containing capillaries