BIO94 LECTURE 07.28.10

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THUATRAN
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29621
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BIO94 LECTURE 07.28.10
Updated:
2010-08-11 11:26:31
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BIO94 INTRO ANIMALS
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INTRODUCTION TO ANIMALS
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  1. What makes an animal, an animal?
    • -they're chemoheterotrophs
    • -they ingest and digest food
    • -they're multicellular eukaryotes
    • -no cell walls
    • -they have specialized cells (including muscle and nerve cells)
    • -they have a blastula embryonic stage
    • -they're diverse in morphology
  2. What are the stages of reproduction and development?
    • (1) Fertilization
    • (2) Cleavage (cell division)
    • (3) Blastula (Hollow ball)
    • (4) Gastrulation (cell differentiation)
    • (5) Archenteron (pouch formed --> stomach)
    • (6) Blastopore opens to outside
    • (7) Hox genes regulate other genes important to controlling the development of body form
  3. What is the CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION?
    • -the rapid acceleration of animal diversity
    • -earliest fossil appearance of many groups of living animals
  4. Why did the CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION occur?
    • -new prey-predator relationships which helped predators catch prey (locomotion) and prey develop adaptations of defense
    • -rise in atmospheric oxygen which provides opportunities for higher metabolism and larger body sizes
  5. What are the 3 types of BODY SYMMETRY found in animals?
    • (1) Asymmetric (sponges)
    • (2) Radial (jellies)
    • (3) Bilateral (humans)
  6. What is DIPLOBLASTIC?
    two germ layers: endoderm and ectoderm
  7. What is TRIPLOBLASTIC?
    3 germ layers: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm
  8. What are ANIMALS?
    Animals are majority TRIPLOBLASTIC with the exception of jellies
  9. What tissue does the ECTODERM give rise to during development?
    skin and central nervous system
  10. What tissue does the ENDODERM give rise to during development?
    digestive tube
  11. What tissue does the MESODERM give rise to during development?
    muscles and other organs
  12. What are COELOMATES?
    animals with a true body cavity; true coelom forms from mesoderm
  13. What are ACOELOMATES?
    animals that lack body cavity
  14. What are PSEUDOCOELOMATES?
    animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm
  15. What is the DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROTOSTOMES AND DEUTEROSTOMES?
    • -the mouth of a protostome is derived from blastopore first, the anus second.
    • -the anus of a deuterostome is derived from the blastopore first, the mouth is second.
    • -cleavage of protostome is spiral and determinate.
    • -cleavage of deuterostome is parallel or perpendicular and indeterminate
    • -coelom formation of protostome is from the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm.
    • -coelom formation of deuterostome is from the budding of the mesoderm from the archenteron.
  16. What are INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS?
    Subkingdom parazoa and Subkingdom eumetozoa
  17. What is SUBKINGDOM PARAZOA?
    • -invertebrates
    • -phylum porifera
    • -phylum placazoa

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