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What makes an animal, an animal?
- -they're chemoheterotrophs
- -they ingest and digest food
- -they're multicellular eukaryotes
- -no cell walls
- -they have specialized cells (including muscle and nerve cells)
- -they have a blastula embryonic stage
- -they're diverse in morphology
What are the stages of reproduction and development?
- (1) Fertilization
- (2) Cleavage (cell division)
- (3) Blastula (Hollow ball)
- (4) Gastrulation (cell differentiation)
- (5) Archenteron (pouch formed --> stomach)
- (6) Blastopore opens to outside
- (7) Hox genes regulate other genes important to controlling the development of body form
What is the CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION?
- -the rapid acceleration of animal diversity
- -earliest fossil appearance of many groups of living animals
Why did the CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION occur?
- -new prey-predator relationships which helped predators catch prey (locomotion) and prey develop adaptations of defense
- -rise in atmospheric oxygen which provides opportunities for higher metabolism and larger body sizes
What are the 3 types of BODY SYMMETRY found in animals?
- (1) Asymmetric (sponges)
- (2) Radial (jellies)
- (3) Bilateral (humans)
What is DIPLOBLASTIC?
two germ layers: endoderm and ectoderm
What is TRIPLOBLASTIC?
3 germ layers: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm
What are ANIMALS?
Animals are majority TRIPLOBLASTIC with the exception of jellies
What tissue does the ECTODERM give rise to during development?
skin and central nervous system
What tissue does the ENDODERM give rise to during development?
What tissue does the MESODERM give rise to during development?
muscles and other organs
What are COELOMATES?
animals with a true body cavity; true coelom forms from mesoderm
What are ACOELOMATES?
animals that lack body cavity
What are PSEUDOCOELOMATES?
animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm
What is the DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROTOSTOMES AND DEUTEROSTOMES?
- -the mouth of a protostome is derived from blastopore first, the anus second.
- -the anus of a deuterostome is derived from the blastopore first, the mouth is second.
- -cleavage of protostome is spiral and determinate.
- -cleavage of deuterostome is parallel or perpendicular and indeterminate
- -coelom formation of protostome is from the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm.
- -coelom formation of deuterostome is from the budding of the mesoderm from the archenteron.
What are INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS?
Subkingdom parazoa and Subkingdom eumetozoa
What is SUBKINGDOM PARAZOA?
- -phylum porifera
- -phylum placazoa