COM 102

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eddiewala
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296251
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COM 102
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2015-02-19 13:48:13
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Exam1
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chapter1,2,&3
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  1. What is communication?
    • a process
    • using messages
    • occurring in contexts
    • happening via channels
    • and may require media
  2. the basic unit of communication is:
    the message
  3. we exchange messages during ____ with others
    interactions
  4. chunks or packages of information is called
    messages
  5. The three models of the communication process:
    • linear
    • interactive
    • transitional
  6. The linear model
    • a sender sends a message to a receiver within a channel through noise. 
    • examples-text message, email
  7. types of noise
    • internal-
    • physiological-happening in body(tired/hungry)
    • psychological-happening in mind
    • external-(construction, etc)
  8. interactive model(two way)
    • feedback is expected and given and the message is affected by fields of experience(how one interprets a message based on their own understanding
    • examples-meetings, presentations, classrooms, etc
  9. Channel
    The sensory dimension (Sound, Sight, touch, taste, or scent) used to transmit information during communication
  10. Contexts
    Situations in which communication occurs
  11. Culture
    The established, coherent set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and practices shared by a large group of people
  12. Feedback
    Verbal and non-verbal messages that recievers use to indicate their reaction to communication, such as a frown or saying "I disagree."
  13. Interaction
    A series of messages exchanged between people, whether face to face or online
  14. Interpersonal Communication
    A dynamic form of communication between two (or more) people in which the messages exchanged significantly influence their thoughts, emotions, behaviors and relationships
  15. Intrapersonal communications
    Communication involving only one person, such as yourself.
  16. Message
    The package of information transported during communication
  17. Noise
    Environmental factors that impede a message on the way to its destination
  18. Reciever
    The individual for whom a message is intended or to whom it is delivered
  19. Sender
    The individual who generates, packages, and delivers a message
  20. Episodes
    Sequence of interactions between individuals -- message of one influences the message of the other
  21. System Theory
    Interconnected elements -- change in one affects all other elements
  22. relationships are I-Thou when
    • we embrace similarities
    • practice empathy
    • communicate with honesty, respect and kindness
    • thinning the distance between us
  23. Relationships are I-It when
    • we focus on differences 
    • treat others like objects, and are disrespectful
    • 'thickening" the distance between us
  24. meta communication is
    communication about communication, like "just kidding"
  25. dyadic communication
    In practice, this relationship refers to dialogic relations or face-to-face verbal communication between two people involving their mutual ideas, thought, behaviour, ideals, liking, disliking, and the queries and answers concerning life and living in nature
  26. the three goals of ipc
    • self presentation-how you want others to see you
    • instrumental-accomplishing tasks
    • relationship-creating, maintaining, and ending relationships
  27. The elements of a social scientific scholarly article
    • Abstract-summary of what the article is about
    • Literature Review(Hypotheses-qualitative)(research questions-quantitative)
    • Methods-How was the study done?(participants and sampling-how did you find the participants)
    • Results-this is what I found
    • Discussion-a couple of limitations, etc
    • references
    • appendices/tables/figures
  28. maslows hierarchy of needs
    • 1. physiological needs-breathing, food, shelter, clothing
    • 2. safety and security-health, employment
    • 3. love and belonging-friendship, family
    • 4. self esteem-confidence, respect for others
    • 5. self actualization-morality, creativity, acceptance
  29. high self monitors
    highly sensitive to appropriateness and adapt their communication
  30. people who communicate the same way regardless of the situation are
    low self monitors
  31. competent communicators are 
    • appropriate
    • effective and
    • ethical
  32. the three components of self
    • self awareness-the ability to view yourself as a unique person, and reflect on your own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
    • self concept-your overall perception of who you are as influenced by your beliefs, attitudes, and values you have about yourself
    • self esteem-the overall value that we assign to ourselves
  33. culture
    • a collective sense of self established by a group of people
    • example-ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, hobbies, etc
  34. self discrepancy theory
    • ideal self-the self you want to be
    • ought self-the self other people want you to be
  35. the bigger the discrepancy between your ought self and ideal self, the lower your self esteeem. T/F
    true
  36. self fulfilling prophecies
    predictions about future interactions that leads us to behave in ways that ensure the interactions unfolds as we predicted
  37. looking glass self
    how our self concept is influenced by what we believe others think of us
  38. self concepts are long lasting and difficult to change. T/F?
    True
  39. comparing oneself to others,like parents, role models, siblings, etc is called
    social comparison
  40. the FOUR styles
    • Secure attachment(healthy)-low anxiety & low avoidance
    • Preoccupied attachment-high anxiety & low avoidance
    • Dismissive attachment-low anxiety and high avoidance
    • Fearful attachment-high avoidance and high anxiety
  41. individualistic culture
    emphasizes individual goals and needs over others
  42. collectivist culture emphasizes 
    belonging to groups that reward for your loyalty and concern for the good of the group
  43. examples of faces are:
    school, partner, child, parent
  44. a mask is
    a public self designed to conceal your private self
  45. when information arises or thing happen that make us lose face
    • face threatening acts.
    • these are embarrassing so we attempt to save face
  46. the five ways to improve your online self-presentation are
    • project a positive online image-screen names, email addresses, etc
    • make wise choices in words and images you use
    • be wary of the information that contradicts your self image(other people's post about you)
    • routinely conduct web searches on yourself
    • keep the interview test in mind
  47. how verifiable is information online about someone is called?
    warranting value
  48. revealing private information about ourselves to other people is called
    self disclosure
  49. the interpersonal process intimacy model of intimacy says that
    • the closeness we feel to others is created through
    • ---self disclosure and
    • ---responsiveness to others to disclose to us
  50. we reveal ourselves in layers, like an onion. this is described by;
    the social penetration theory
  51. the johari window shows that 
    some aspects of self are open to share with others and some remain hidden
  52. johari window
  53. the three steps of perception are
    • selection-focusing attention on certain stimuli or environment. (salience)
    • organization-structuring the selected information into a coherent pattern in your mind(punctuation)
    • interpretation-assigning meaning to selected information
  54. Salience
    -salient information is usually visually and audibly stimulating, what our goals lead us to view as important-like paying attention in class, and they may be things that deviate from our expectations.
  55. punctuation
    organizing the information into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the events
  56. the two ways we assign meaning to selected information are
    • using familiar information to provide reference
    • creating explanations for behaviors
  57. schemata
    making sense of others' communication by comparing it to what we already know, and using it to interpret people, events, and relationships
  58. attributions answer the question "why?' T/F?
    true
  59. character or personality-when you say someone did something because they're nice or because they're a jerk
    internal attribution
  60. external attribution
    based on situation
  61. the tendency to blame internal causes when it may be external causes
    fundamental attribution error-common in texts and email
  62. actor-observer effect
    the tendency to attribute external factors to your own behavior(usuasly negative)
  63. self serving bias
    the tendency to attribute internal factors to our own behavior(usually positive)
  64. Uncertainty Reduction Theory(URT)
    we aim to explain and predict people
  65. URT strategies to reduce uncertainty include
    • passive strategies-stalk them on FB
    • active strategies-ask someone about them
    • interactive strategies-talk directly to them
  66. gender/sex affects on perception
    • Cerebral cortex differences
    • -men:time and speed perception, mentally rotating 3D figures
    • -women;spacial relationships, identify emotions, and language skills
  67. Personality
    An individual's way of thinking, feeling and acting, based on the traits that he or she possesses.
  68. Gestalts
    General and global impressions of people, either positive or negative.
  69. Positivity Bias
    Gestalts more likely to be positive.
  70. Negativity Effect
    Emphasis on negative information.
  71. Halo Effect
    Positively interpret what someone says or does because we have a positive Gestalt of them.
  72. Horn Effect
    The tendency to negatively interpret the communication and behavior of people for whom we have negative Gestalts.
  73. Algebraic Impressions
    Taking all the information you know about somebody and comparing it and making an idea of how the person is overall and being able to judge them differently when you gain more information.
  74. Stereotyping
    Placing somebody into a category then judging them based upon what you know about people that within that category.
  75. Empathy
    Being able to identify with the feelings of others.
  76. List 3 ways to check your perception.
    • 1) Check your punctuation. 
    • 2) Check your knowledge
    • 3) Check your attributions
    • 4) Check your perceptual influences.
    • 5) Check your impressions.
  77. Perspective Taking
    The ability to see things from someone else's vantage point without necessarily experiencing that person's emotions.
  78. Primacy effect
    This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series. If you hear a long list of words, it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard first (at the beginning of the list) than words that occurred in the middle. This is the primacy effect. You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the end of the list more than words in the middle, and this is called the recency effect.Read more: http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Primacy%20Effect#ixzz3SDTqRH9y
  79. Big Five personality traits(OCEAN)
    • openness-open minded
    • conscientiousness-self awareness 7 staying on task
    • extraversion-social, outgoing
    • agreeableness-friendly, easygoing
    • neurotism-negative emotions, thinking negatively
  80. implicit personality theories
    • another way to reduce uncertainty about others
    • we often assume certain personality traits go together
  81. Emotions
    short-term feelings that are linked to specific situations
  82. an intense reaction that controls how we interpret and respond to an event
    emotion
  83. features of emotion
    • triggered by outside events
    • involve a physiological arousal(cry, throw up, sweat, etc)
    • require awareness/labeling
    • are governed by preexisting norms
    • are reflected in verbal and non verbal displays
  84. the six primary emotions
    • surprise
    • joy
    • disgust
    • anger
    • fear
    • sadness
  85. jealousy
    anger+fear+sadness
  86. short term emotional reactions to events with limited arousal, and do not trigger attempts to manage expression
    feelings. eg, relief, flattery
  87. low intensity long lasting states  not reactions to specific events
    moods
  88. eckman and friesen's unwritten codes that govern the ways in which people manage and express their emotions
    • 1. intensification-exaggeration
    • 2.deintensification-displaying emotion
    • 3. simulation-acting emotional
    • 4. inhibition-acting emotionless
    • 5. masking-hiding the true emotion with another 
  89. the ability to interpret your own and others' ion accurately and use this to communicate effectively 
    emotional intelligence
  90. stages of grief
    • denial
    • anger
    • bargaining-people turn to faith
    • depression-often the worst part
    • acceptance
  91. the two factors of online communication that often contribute to lack of empathy
    • asynchronous nature
    • invisibility
  92. feedback is neurologically tied to empathy. t/f?
    true

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