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What is communication?
- a process
- using messages
- occurring in contexts
- happening via channels
- and may require media
the basic unit of communication is:
we exchange messages during ____ with others
chunks or packages of information is called
The three models of the communication process:
The linear model
- a sender sends a message to a receiver within a channel through noise.
- examples-text message, email
types of noise
- physiological-happening in body(tired/hungry)
- psychological-happening in mind
- external-(construction, etc)
interactive model(two way)
- feedback is expected and given and the message is affected by fields of experience(how one interprets a message based on their own understanding
- examples-meetings, presentations, classrooms, etc
The sensory dimension (Sound, Sight, touch, taste, or scent) used to transmit information during communication
Situations in which communication occurs
The established, coherent set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and practices shared by a large group of people
Verbal and non-verbal messages that recievers use to indicate their reaction to communication, such as a frown or saying "I disagree."
A series of messages exchanged between people, whether face to face or online
A dynamic form of communication between two (or more) people in which the messages exchanged significantly influence their thoughts, emotions, behaviors and relationships
Communication involving only one person, such as yourself.
The package of information transported during communication
Environmental factors that impede a message on the way to its destination
The individual for whom a message is intended or to whom it is delivered
The individual who generates, packages, and delivers a message
Sequence of interactions between individuals -- message of one influences the message of the other
Interconnected elements -- change in one affects all other elements
relationships are I-Thou when
- we embrace similarities
- practice empathy
- communicate with honesty, respect and kindness
- thinning the distance between us
Relationships are I-It when
- we focus on differences
- treat others like objects, and are disrespectful
- 'thickening" the distance between us
meta communication is
communication about communication, like "just kidding"
In practice, this relationship refers to dialogic relations or face-to-face verbal communication between two people involving their mutual ideas, thought, behaviour, ideals, liking, disliking, and the queries and answers concerning life and living in nature
the three goals of ipc
- self presentation-how you want others to see you
- instrumental-accomplishing tasks
- relationship-creating, maintaining, and ending relationships
The elements of a social scientific scholarly article
- Abstract-summary of what the article is about
- Literature Review(Hypotheses-qualitative)(research questions-quantitative)
- Methods-How was the study done?(participants and sampling-how did you find the participants)
- Results-this is what I found
- Discussion-a couple of limitations, etc
maslows hierarchy of needs
- 1. physiological needs-breathing, food, shelter, clothing
- 2. safety and security-health, employment
- 3. love and belonging-friendship, family
- 4. self esteem-confidence, respect for others
- 5. self actualization-morality, creativity, acceptance
high self monitors
highly sensitive to appropriateness and adapt their communication
people who communicate the same way regardless of the situation are
low self monitors
competent communicators are
- effective and
the three components of self
- self awareness-the ability to view yourself as a unique person, and reflect on your own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
- self concept-your overall perception of who you are as influenced by your beliefs, attitudes, and values you have about yourself
- self esteem-the overall value that we assign to ourselves
- a collective sense of self established by a group of people
- example-ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, hobbies, etc
self discrepancy theory
- ideal self-the self you want to be
- ought self-the self other people want you to be
the bigger the discrepancy between your ought self and ideal self, the lower your self esteeem. T/F
self fulfilling prophecies
predictions about future interactions that leads us to behave in ways that ensure the interactions unfolds as we predicted
looking glass self
how our self concept is influenced by what we believe others think of us
self concepts are long lasting and difficult to change. T/F?
comparing oneself to others,like parents, role models, siblings, etc is called
the FOUR styles
- Secure attachment(healthy)-low anxiety & low avoidance
- Preoccupied attachment-high anxiety & low avoidance
- Dismissive attachment-low anxiety and high avoidance
- Fearful attachment-high avoidance and high anxiety
emphasizes individual goals and needs over others
collectivist culture emphasizes
belonging to groups that reward for your loyalty and concern for the good of the group
examples of faces are:
school, partner, child, parent
a mask is
a public self designed to conceal your private self
when information arises or thing happen that make us lose face
- face threatening acts.
- these are embarrassing so we attempt to save face
the five ways to improve your online self-presentation are
- project a positive online image-screen names, email addresses, etc
- make wise choices in words and images you use
- be wary of the information that contradicts your self image(other people's post about you)
- routinely conduct web searches on yourself
- keep the interview test in mind
how verifiable is information online about someone is called?
revealing private information about ourselves to other people is called
the interpersonal process intimacy model of intimacy says that
- the closeness we feel to others is created through
- ---self disclosure and
- ---responsiveness to others to disclose to us
we reveal ourselves in layers, like an onion. this is described by;
the social penetration theory
the johari window shows that
some aspects of self are open to share with others and some remain hidden
the three steps of perception are
- selection-focusing attention on certain stimuli or environment. (salience)
- organization-structuring the selected information into a coherent pattern in your mind(punctuation)
- interpretation-assigning meaning to selected information
-salient information is usually visually and audibly stimulating, what our goals lead us to view as important-like paying attention in class, and they may be things that deviate from our expectations.
organizing the information into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the events
the two ways we assign meaning to selected information are
- using familiar information to provide reference
- creating explanations for behaviors
making sense of others' communication by comparing it to what we already know, and using it to interpret people, events, and relationships
attributions answer the question "why?' T/F?
character or personality-when you say someone did something because they're nice or because they're a jerk
based on situation
the tendency to blame internal causes when it may be external causes
fundamental attribution error-common in texts and email
the tendency to attribute external factors to your own behavior(usuasly negative)
self serving bias
the tendency to attribute internal factors to our own behavior(usually positive)
Uncertainty Reduction Theory(URT)
we aim to explain and predict people
URT strategies to reduce uncertainty include
- passive strategies-stalk them on FB
- active strategies-ask someone about them
- interactive strategies-talk directly to them
gender/sex affects on perception
- Cerebral cortex differences
- -men:time and speed perception, mentally rotating 3D figures
- -women;spacial relationships, identify emotions, and language skills
An individual's way of thinking, feeling and acting, based on the traits that he or she possesses.
General and global impressions of people, either positive or negative.
Gestalts more likely to be positive.
Emphasis on negative information.
Positively interpret what someone says or does because we have a positive Gestalt of them.
The tendency to negatively interpret the communication and behavior of people for whom we have negative Gestalts.
Taking all the information you know about somebody and comparing it and making an idea of how the person is overall and being able to judge them differently when you gain more information.
Placing somebody into a category then judging them based upon what you know about people that within that category.
Being able to identify with the feelings of others.
List 3 ways to check your perception.
- 1) Check your punctuation.
- 2) Check your knowledge
- 3) Check your attributions
- 4) Check your perceptual influences.
- 5) Check your impressions.
The ability to see things from someone else's vantage point without necessarily experiencing that person's emotions.
This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series. If you hear a long list of words, it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard first (at the beginning of the list) than words that occurred in the middle. This is the primacy effect. You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the end of the list more than words in the middle, and this is called the recency effect.Read more: http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Primacy%20Effect#ixzz3SDTqRH9y
Big Five personality traits(OCEAN)
- openness-open minded
- conscientiousness-self awareness 7 staying on task
- extraversion-social, outgoing
- agreeableness-friendly, easygoing
- neurotism-negative emotions, thinking negatively
implicit personality theories
- another way to reduce uncertainty about others
- we often assume certain personality traits go together
short-term feelings that are linked to specific situations
an intense reaction that controls how we interpret and respond to an event
features of emotion
- triggered by outside events
- involve a physiological arousal(cry, throw up, sweat, etc)
- require awareness/labeling
- are governed by preexisting norms
- are reflected in verbal and non verbal displays
the six primary emotions
short term emotional reactions to events with limited arousal, and do not trigger attempts to manage expression
feelings. eg, relief, flattery
low intensity long lasting states not reactions to specific events
eckman and friesen's unwritten codes that govern the ways in which people manage and express their emotions
- 1. intensification-exaggeration
- 2.deintensification-displaying emotion
- 3. simulation-acting emotional
- 4. inhibition-acting emotionless
- 5. masking-hiding the true emotion with another
the ability to interpret your own and others' ion accurately and use this to communicate effectively
stages of grief
- bargaining-people turn to faith
- depression-often the worst part
the two factors of online communication that often contribute to lack of empathy
- asynchronous nature
feedback is neurologically tied to empathy. t/f?