BIO94 LECTURE 08.05.10 & 08.09.10

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THUATRAN
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29626
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BIO94 LECTURE 08.05.10 & 08.09.10
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2010-08-11 14:14:52
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EVOLUTION ECOLOGY
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BIO94 LECTURES 08.05.10 & 08.09.10 EVOLUTION AND ECOLOGY
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  1. Describe GAS EXCHANGE IN PLANTS
    • -leaves have broad surface areas and high surface to volume ratios which increases photosynthesis
    • -stomata is the site of water loss
    • -stomata take in water by osmosis
    • -stomata are open during the day and closed at night
    • -warm water, saltier water hold less oxygen
  2. Describe GAS EXCHANGE IN ANIMALS.
    • -oxygen is plentiful in air
    • -gas exchange in air is less demanding than gas exchange in water
    • -we have respiratory surfaces instead of stomata
    • -respiratory surfaces take in oxygen by diffusion
    • -respiratory surfaces are skins, gills, trachea, and lungs
  3. Describe GILL STRUCTURE.
    • -gills increase surface area
    • -red capillaries = oxygen rich
    • -blue capillaries = oxygen poor
  4. Describe COUNTER-CURRENT EXCHANGE.
    • -blood flows unidirectionally one way
    • -water flows unidirectionally the other way
    • -blood and water are COUNTERCURRENT
    • -optimizes concentration of oxygen
  5. How do INSECTS partake in GAS EXCHANGE?
    -TRACHEA AND TRACHEOLES
  6. How do BIRDS partake in GAS EXCHANGE?
    • -birds have smaller lungs that contract & expand less than mammalian lungs
    • -unidirectional air flow
  7. Describe the MAMMALIAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.
    • -either have a body shape that keep many or all cells in contact with the environment (porifera, cnidarians, flatworms) or USE A CIRCULATORY SYSTEM WITH FLUID THAT MOVE BETWEEN CELL'S SURROUNDINGS AND TISSUE WHERE GAS EXCHANGE OCCURS.
    • -3 BASIC COMPONENTS: circulatory fluid, interconnecting tubes, and muscular pump
    • -open circulatory system (no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid = hemolymph) --> arthropods & mollusks
    • -closed circulatory system (blood confined to vessels) --> annelids, cephalopods, and all vertebrates
  8. What is the difference between open and closed circulatory systems?
    • -open circulatory system (no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid = hemolymph) --> arthropods & mollusks
    • -closed circulatory system (blood confined to vessels) --> annelids, cephalopods, and all vertebrates
  9. What is SINGLE CIRCULATION?
    • -heart has 2 chambers: atrium and ventricle
    • -blood leaving the heart passes thru two capillary beds before returning in gills and systemic capillary
    • -seen in bony fishes, rays and sharks
  10. What is DOUBLE CIRCULATION?
    -two circuits: left side of heart (systemic circuit = out of heart) and right side of heart (pulmonary circuit = to heart)
  11. How many chambers does an amphibian have in its heart?
    3 = two atria, one ventricle
  12. How many chambers does a REPTILE have in its heart?
    3 = two atria, one ventricle with partial septum
  13. How many chambers do MAMMALS have in their heart?
    4 = two atria, two ventricles
  14. What is ECOLOGY?
    -the study of interactions of organisms with other organisms with the physical environment
  15. What are BIOTIC FACTORS?
    • -variable that effects organisms
    • -include all living organisms in area
  16. What are ABIOTIC FACTORS?
    • -variables that effect organisms
    • -includes environment's non-living components such as temperature, energy, water, and nutrients
  17. What is a POPULATION?
    organisms within an area belonging to same species
  18. What is a COMMUNITY?
    various populations living together for potential interactions that includes all biotic factors in environment
  19. What is an ECOSYSTEM?
    community of populations which includes biotic and abiotic factors
  20. What inorganic nutrients do we need?
    NITROGEN and PHOSPHOROUS
  21. What is POPULATION ECOLOGY?
    • -the study of how and why populations change
    • -important for pest control and saving endangered species
  22. What are the TWO ASPECTS of POPULATION STRUCTURE?
    • (1) population density
    • (2) dispersion pattern
  23. What are the three types of DISPERSION PATTERNS?
    • (1) clumped
    • (2) uniform
    • (3) random
  24. What is TYPE 1 SURVIVORSHIP CURVE?
    • -most individuals survive well past the midpoint of the life span
    • -usually produce few offspring
    • -live past maturity
    • -seen in humans of developed countries
  25. What is TYPE 3 SURVIVORSHIP CURVE?
    • -populations where most die very young
    • -produce larger number of offspring
    • -seen in humans of less developed countries, invertebrates, and fish
  26. What is TYPE 2 SURVIVORSHIP CURVE?
    • -survivorship decreases at constant rate throughout life span
    • -seen in small mammals and birds
  27. What is EXPONENTIAL GROWTH?
    • -as population increases, the slope gets steeper
    • -unregulated growth and reproduction
    • -seen in populations introduced to new environments
  28. What is LOGISTIC GROWTH?
    • -populations grow exponentially for awhile but environmental factors limit growth
    • -depends on species, resources available and abiotic factors
  29. What are DENSITY DEPENDENT FACTORS?
    -abiotic factos that cause sudden reductions in population size
  30. What are DENSITY DEPENDENT FACTORS?
    -biotic factors that effect population size such as PREDATION and PARASITISM

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