Ornithology Test 1: General

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tresa
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296269
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Ornithology Test 1: General
Updated:
2015-02-19 00:42:34
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Tresa
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ornithology test 1 evolution of birds, flight, feathers
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  1. Major defining traits of birds
    • feathers
    • bills
    • wings
    • feet
  2. Wing types
    • eliptical, wing slots (cardinal)
    • high speed wing, tapered (swallows)
    • dynamic soaring wing, tapered (seagulls)
    • high lift wing, wing slots (eagles)
  3. characteristics shared by reptiles and birds
    • single occipital condyle on skull
    • single middle ear bone
    • lower jaw composed of 5-6 bones
    • scales
    • nitrogenous waste excreted as uric acid
    • cleidoic eggs
    • f=heterogametic, m=homogametic
  4. what was reptile like about archaeopteryx?
    • tail
    • boney jaw, teeth
    • long legs for running
    • reduced sternum
  5. what was bird like about archaeopteryx?
    • feathers (wings and tail)
    • reduced pelvis
    • fused calvicle
    • backward pointing toe (hallux)
    • feathers for flying
  6. Thecodont hypothesis pros and cons
    • evolved from thecodonts 230mya
    • arboreal
    • fossils of thecodont avian ancestors that resemble theropods b/c of convergent evolution
    • Feduccia - digits of bird hand = dinosaur hand
    • protofeathers
    • microraptors not theropods¬†
    • flight should have evolved in arboreal species yet all theropods cursorial


    • cons:¬†
    • no feathers on thecodonts
    • less popular
  7. theropod hypothesis
    • evolved from theropod dinosaurs 180mya
    • curasorital
    • trex dna sequencing similar to chicken and ostrich, not to croc
    • presence of protofeathers on many theropods but not thecodonts

    • cons:
    • feet unlike modern birds, like thecodonts
    • collagen fibers rather than protofeathers
    • microraptors not theropods
    • flight should have evolved in arboreal species
    • impossible to reach running speeds
    • reversed hallux not for running
  8. types of feathers
    • contour feathers
    • body feathers
    • down feathers
    • semiplume
    • filoplume
    • rictal bristles
    • pterylae
  9. contour feathers
    rachis/calmus w/ barbs

    • barbs
    • ramsu, barbules, barbicels
  10. flight feathers
    • remiges - wings, asymetrical vane
    • coverts - +survace area for lift
    • retrices - tail, asymetrical, used for steering/breaking
  11. down feathers
    • no rachis, barbicils
    • barbs and barbules create fluffy tangle
  12. semiplume feathers
    • rachis present
    • barbicels absent
    • under contour feathers
  13. filoplume feathers
    • rachis
    • no barbs (or only at tip)
    • sensory function?
  14. rictal bristles
    • calamus and rachis, no vane
    • stiff
    • used to trap food
    • eyelashes
  15. pterylae
    grows from base out in feather tracts
  16. what are feathers made of
    90% beta-keratin
  17. evolution of feathers
    • hypothesized stages
    • unbranched, flexible, tubular elongation of placodes
    • devel of barbs
    • devel of rachis via fusion of barbs
    • devel of barbules that branched from barbs

    • why?
    • escape from predation
    • exploit new food sources
    • disperse to new habitats

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