Comparative Lung Features and the Diaphragm

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Anonymous
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296283
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Comparative Lung Features and the Diaphragm
Updated:
2015-02-19 06:59:49
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Anatomy Lung Diaphragm
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Vet Med - Module 9
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  1. What colour are normal healthy lungs?
    Pink/red
  2. Why will lungs from a stillborn animal sink?
    As they have not expanded when the animal takes its first breath so they will not contain any air
  3. The ... is the area where structures enter and leave the lungs?
    hilus
  4. Which lung tends to be larger?
    The right lung
  5. List the different lobes of the lung in a dog
    • Left - cranial (split into cranial and caudal parts), caudal
    • Right - cranial, middle, caudal, accessory
  6. Where does the accessory lobe of the right lung sit in the live animal?
    In the mediastinal recess formed by the plica vena cava
  7. The caudal border of the lung expands into the ... recess when inflated?
    costodiaphragmatic recess
  8. The ventral border of the lung expands into the ... recess when inflated?
    costomediastinal recess
  9. The cranial border of the lung expands in the ... when inflated?
    cupula
  10. List the lobes of the lung in the ruminate
    • Left - cranial (split into cranial and caudal parts), caudal
    • Right - cranial (split into cranial and caudal parts), caudal, middle, accessory
  11. True or false: ruminants have a tracheal bronchus?
    True - it enters the right cranial lung lobe
  12. The visceral pleura covering ruminant lungs is thin/thick?
    Thick, especially in large ruminants.
  13. List the lobes of the lung in the pig
    • Left - cranial (divided into cranial and caudal parts) and caudal
    • Right - cranial, middle, caudal and accessory
  14. True or false: the pig has a tracheal bronchus?
    True
  15. List the lobes of the lung in the horse
    • Left - cranial and caudal
    • Right - cranial, caudal and accessory (no middle lobe!)
  16. True or false: the horse has a tracheal bronchus?
    False
  17. The diaphragm is the primary muscle of ...?
    inspiration
  18. What body cavities does the diaphragm separate?
    The thoracic and abdominal cavities
  19. The diaphragm can be divided into two regions, what are these?
    A muscular rim and a tendinous centre
  20. What three areas is the muscular rim divided into?
    Lumbar, costal and sternal parts
  21. The lumbar part of the muscular diaphragm consists of two fan shaped muscles or ...?
    crura
  22. Which crura is larger: left or right?
    Right
  23. The diaphragm extends to which rib?
    The 6th rib
  24. What is the lumbocostal arch of the diaphragm?  Which structures run through here?
    • The lumbocostal arch is between the costal and lumbar areas of the diaphragm where only CT, pleura and peritoneum separate the thoracic and abdominal cavities
    • The sympathetic trunk and splanchic nerves run through here
  25. What are the three foramina in the diaphragm?
    The aortic hiatus, the oesophageal hiatus and foramen vena cava
  26. What structures run through the aortic hiatus?
    The aorta, azygous vein and thoracic duct
  27. What structures run through the oesophageal hiatus?
    The oesophagus and vagus nerve
  28. What structure runs through the foramen vena cava?
    Caudal vena cava
  29. Which of these foramina is the weakest and why?
    The oesophageal hiatus - as it is loose to allow passage of food through the oesophagus.  It can lead to diaphragmatic hernia.
  30. What is the nerve supply to the diaphragm?
    Left and right phrenic nerves
  31. What is the blood supply to the diaphragm?
    Musculophrenic artery and caudal phrenic artery
  32. What is the costodiaphragmatic line of pleural reflection?
    The peripheral limit of the costodiaphramatic recess.  This line marks the greatest possible expansion of the normal lung.
  33. Where does the costodiaphragmatic line of pleural reflection run to and from?
    It runs approximately from the 8th costocondral junction to the proximal end of the last rib
  34. What is the clinical importance of the costodiaphragmatic line of pleural reflection?
    It marks the boundary between pleural (thoracic) and peritoneal (abdominal) cavities
  35. Entrance to the thoracic cavity must be made cranial/caudal to the line of pleural reflection?
    cranial
  36. Entrance to the abdominal cavity must be made cranial/caudal to the line of pleural reflection?
    caudal
  37. In which species is the costodiaphragmatic line of pleural reflection more cranial and dorsal: dogs & horses, or the ox?
    The ox

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