sensation flashcards chapter 1.txt

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sensation flashcards chapter 1.txt
2015-02-19 12:46:21
sensation perception

gl guys
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  1. What is the initial step in the perceptual process?
  2. What is the process of sensation?
    sensory cells convert physical features of the environment into electrochemical signals.
  3. What is the later steps in the perceptual process?
  4. What is the initial sensory signal that is used to represent objects and events?
  5. What does the perception allow for?
    • identification
    • memory storage
  6. perception is used for _____?
    thought and action
  7. What is a distal stimulus?
    a perceived object or event in the world
  8. What is a physical phenomenon evoked by a distal stimulus that impinges on the specialized cells of a sense?
    a Proximal Stimulus
  9. What is transduction?
    • it is how proximal stimulus is transformed into neural signals.
    • **transformation of physical stimulus into neural signal.
  10. What is the relationship between perceptual experience and the distal stimulus?
  11. Who was the guy who came up with the law of specific nerve energies?
    Johannes Muller
  12. What did Wilder Penfield come up with?
    • touch map,
    • perceived location of touches on the body corresponded to the location of neural activity in the brain.
  13. What is it called when perception depends on the combined activity of many specialized neurons
    neuron doctrine.
  14. What is the electrochemical signal that begins in the dendrites of a neuron and travels down the axon to the axon terminals?
    Action Potential
  15. What is resting potential and the mV associated with it?
    • when the membrane potential in a neuron is at rest
    • -70mV
  16. What is it called when an inflow of positively charged ions cause the membrane potential to become more positive? And what happens to the mV?
    • deporalization
    • mV moves towards 0 as opposed to -70mV
  17. What happens during the refractory period?
    a brief period during which a new action potential cannot be initiated
  18. What does EPSP stand for?
    excitatory postsynaptic potential
  19. what causes a neuron membrane potential to be morel positive?
    • excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
    • Lets Na+ into the cell
  20. What causes a neuron membrane potential to be more negative?
    • Inhibitory Postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
    • lets CL- into the cell
  21. what is a subcortical structure involved with the processing of sensory information, states of arousal and learning?
  22. What collects inputs from the eyes, ears, taste buds, and other sensory organs?
  23. what does cognitive neuropsychology attempt to investigate?
    the perceptual and cognitive deficits in individuals with brain damage
  24. Who noticed two patients with damage to the left frontal lobe that had impaired ability to produce spoken language?
    Pierre Paul broca (1824-1880)
  25. The brain has many distinct sections (modules) that carry out different functions, what is that called?
  26. What is dissociation?
    a pattern of brain damage where the impaired function is associated with impairment of some specific function but not another.
  27. What is functional neuroimaging?
    an array of techniques for measuring brain
  28. What was the concept that was concerned with relating psychological experience to physical stimuli?
  29. Who developed psychophysics and when?
    Gustav Fechter (1860)
  30. What are the two ways that psychophysics investigates relationships between stimuli and experience?
    • thresholds of perceptual experience
    • investigating the scaling of perception
  31. What is the minimum intensity of a physical stimulus that can just be detected by an observer?
    Absolute threshold
  32. What are the three methods of measure for absolute threshold?
    • Method of Adjustment
    • Methods of Constant Stimuli
    • staircase method
  33. What does I stand for in Weber’s law formula? what does K stand for in Weber’s formula?
    • Intensity
    • k stands for determined constant
  34. What is the process of measuring how changes in stimulus intensity relate to changes in the perceived intensity?
    Psychophysical Scaling
  35. What is the slight variation in the number of action potentials produced by neuron in response to a fixed stimulus?
  36. What is signal detection?
    • how people make decisions based on noisy perceptual evidence
    • it allows us to measure perceptual sensitivity apart from the decision-making style
  37. What is the decision making bias?
    a participant’s tendency to be liberal or conservative in deciding whether a signal was detected?
  38. What is a measure used for overall satisfaction resulting from a given decision?
    • utility?
    • i.e. maximizing the payoff of correct decision
    • minimizing the costs associated with errors.