Ch15T12-16

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Author:
aphy101
ID:
296330
Filename:
Ch15T12-16
Updated:
2015-02-19 17:07:31
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profmwinston
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Cardiovascular
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  1. ´╗┐List the 5 types of blood vessels found in the cardiovascular system in order from the heart back to the heart.
    1) Arteries 2) Arterioles 3) Capillaries 4) Venules 5) Veins
  2. Strong, elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart, and branch out and give rise to arterioles.
    Arteries
  3. Finer, branched vessels that branch out from arteries, give rise to metarterioles, that in turn, join capillaries.
    Arterioles
  4. The smallest diameter blood vessels that connect the smallest arterioles to the smallest venules.
    Capillaries
  5. Connections between arterioles and venous pathways.
    Atriovenous Shunts
  6. Blood vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins.
    Venules
  7. Blood vessels that carry blood to the heart from venules; they also function as blood reservoirs.
    Veins
  8. List the 3 layers of an artery wall from the outside in.
    1) Tunica Externa 2) Tunica Media 3) Tunica Interna (Endothelium)
  9. The outermost layer of an artery wall that consists of connective tissues with collagenous fibers.
    Tunca Externa
  10. The middle layer of an artery wall that is composed of smooth muscle fibers.
    Tunica Media
  11. The innermost layer of an artery wall that is also called the endothelium and functions to provide a smooth surface for blood flow and prevents blood clotting.
    Tunica Interna
  12. What is the function and location of valves?
    Veins have valves, arteries don't; they function to keep blood from flowing back to the heart.
  13. Constriction of a blood vessel caused by contraction of smooth muscle fibers in blood vessel walls.
    Vasoconstriction
  14. Dilation of a blood vessel caused by relaxation of smooth muscle fibers in blood vessel walls.
    Vasodilation
  15. These stimulate smooth muscle cells to contract, decreasing the diameter of the vessel.
    Vasomotor Fibers
  16. Describe the effects of alpha, beta and muscarinic stimulation and distribution of blood in the body.
    Stimulation of alpha receptors causes vasoconstriction; Beta receptors cause vasodilation; Muscarinic receptors are parasympathetic and cause blood to pool into the splancnic reservoir which decreases blood flow to the rest of the body
  17. Located at the opening of capillaries, these function to control the flow of blood into a capillary.
    Precapillary Sphincters
  18. Blood pressure forces molecules out of the capillaries is known as what?
    Hydrostatic Pressure
  19. Plasma proteins in the blood of capillaries drawing water into the capillaries is known as what?
    Colloid Osmotic Pressure
  20. Describe the effect of histamine on a capillary bed.
    It vasodilates the metarterioles and increases capillary permeability, causing increased blood flow to capillaries
  21. The alternate expanding and recoiling of an arterial wall.
    Pulse
  22. The friction between blood and the walls of the blood vessels.
    Peripheral Resistance
  23. The thickness of a fluid.
    Viscosity
  24. The volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of the ventricular diastole; is used to determine stroke volume.
    End Diastolic Pressure
  25. The volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of the ventricular systole; is used to determine stroke volume.
    End Systolic Volume
  26. The maximum pressure, and is created when the ventricles contract.
    Systolic Pressure
  27. The minimum pressure, and is created when the ventricles relax.
    Diastolic Pressure
  28. What are the 3 main determinants of stroke volume?
    1) Preload 2) Afterload 3) Contractility
  29. What is the main determinant of preload?
    Venous Return
  30. What are the sources of venous return?
    1) Total Blood Volume 2) Visceral Blood Reservoir 3) Muscle and Respiratory Pumps
  31. Describe the role of Frank Sterling's Law of the Heart in regard to ensuring cardiac output?
    The volume of blood discharged from the heart is equal to the volume entering its chambers.
  32. What is the main determinant of cardiac output?
    Venous Return
  33. What is the main determiner of resistance in a vessel?
    Blood Pressure
  34. What is the formula to determine cardiac output?
    CO = SV x HR (Stroke Volume x Heart Rate)
  35. What is the formula to determine stroke volume?
    SV = EDV - ESV (End Diastolic Volume - End Systolic Volume)
  36. What is the formula to determine blood pressure?
    BP = CO x TPR (Cardiac Output x Total Peripheral Resistance)
  37. What is the formula to determine resistance?
    R = 8nl/pr^4 (n=viscosity, l=length of vessels, r=radius of arterioles)
  38. What is the formula for mean arterial blood pressure?
    MAP = DP + 1/3 PP (DP=diastolic pressure, PP=pulse pressure)
  39. What is the formula for pulse pressure?
    PP = SP - DP (Systolic Pressure - Diastolic Pressure)

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