Science B1

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Science B1
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2015-02-20 07:58:51
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Science B1
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  1. Gene
    A section of DNA giving the instructions for a cell about how to make one kind of protein
  2. Cell
    The basic structural unit of all living things
  3. Chromosome
    Long, thin, threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell made from a molecule of DNA.
  4. Nucleus
    Central structure in a cell containing genetic material. It controls the function and characteristics of the cell.
  5. Protein
    A large molecule in living things made up of amino acids joined together.
  6. Enzyme
    A protein that takes part in the chemical reactions of the body.
  7. Amylase
    An enzyme which is found in saliva and pancreatic juice and helps convert starch into sugars.
  8. Keratin
    A structural protein that makes hair and nails strong, and helps to waterproof the skin.
  9. Melanin
    A protein that provides colour in animal bodies, for example in skin tones.
  10. Environment
    All the living and non-living factors that surround an organism.
  11. Organism
    A living thing, made up of tissues, cells and organs.
  12. Organelle
    A structure within a cell that performs a particular function.
  13. Variation
    The differences between individuals.
  14. Genotype
    The information in an individual organism's genes.
  15. Phenotype
    The composite of an individual's observable characteristics.
  16. Environment
    All the living and non-living factors that surround an organism.
  17. Organism
    A living thing, made up of tissues, cells and organs.
  18. Continuous variation
    Differences that can exist as a complete range from one extreme to another, with any value in between being possible. Usually controlled by multiple genes.
  19. Discontinuous variation
    Differences that exist only as a number of categories, with no half-way state being possible. Usually controlled by one gene.
  20. Species
    A group of interbreeding organisms that produce fertile offspring.
  21. Gene
    A section of DNA giving the instructions for a cell about how to make one kind of protein
  22. Expression
    The process of making a particular characteristic occur in an organism from the information in it's genes.
  23. RNA
    An intermediary molecule between DNA and Protein.
  24. Chromosome
    An X-shaped structure found inside the nucleus that is made of a single molecule of DNA.
  25. Allele
    One of a number of different genes that code for the same protein, which have small variations in their structure.
  26. Phenotype
    The outward expression of all an organism's characteristics.
  27. Fertilisation
    The process by which male and female sex cells fuse together, creating a new organism.
  28. Gene Locus
    The place in a chromosome where a particular gene is found, which may come in several types or alleles.
  29. Genotype
    All of the information in an organism's genes.
  30. Inherited
    A characteristic that is passed down from parent to offspring.
  31. Dominant
    An allele that is expressed as a characteristic in the organism if it is present.
  32. Recessive
    An allele that is not expressed as a characteristic in the organism if a dominant allele is also present.
  33. Genetic Cross
    Two organisms that each contribute half of their genetic information to their offspring through sexual reproduction.
  34. Expressed gene
    A gene whose coded character can be observed in the phenotype of an organism.
  35. Huntington's disease
    A genetic condition caused by an inherited dominant allele. The symptoms are late onset tremors, memory loss, inability to concentrate and mood changes.
  36. Cystic Fibrosis
    A genetic condition caused by an inherited recessive allele. The symptoms are thick mucus, difficulty breathing, chest infections and difficulty digesting food.
  37. Heterozygous
    An individual with different alleles present at a particular gene locus.
  38. Homozygous
    An individual with the same alleles present at a partucular gene locus.
  39. Genetic Risk
    The probablilty that a particular offspring of two parents will express a genetic disorder.
  40. Carrier
    An indiviudal who does not express a genetic disorder, but does carry the recessive allele for that disorder.
  41. Y Chromosome
    The sex chromosome that, when present, determines that an animal is male.
  42. X Chromosome
    The sex chromosome that determines that an organism is female, if no other sex chromosomes are present.
  43. Primary Sexual Characteristics
    The characteristics that occur in mammals of different genders before the onset of puberty.
  44. Secondary Sexual Characteristics
    The characteristics that occur in mammals of different genders after the onset of puberty.
  45. Androgen
    A hormone which stimulates the sexual characteristics of males to develop.
  46. Ovaries
    The organs in females which produce the female sex cells, or ova.
  47. Testes
    The organs in males which produces the male sex cells, or sperm.
  48. Genetic Screening
    Testing a population for a particular allele.
  49. False Negative
    A genetic test that does not detect the presence of an allele.
  50. False Positive
    A genetic test that detects the presence of an allele when it is not in fact present.
  51. Ethics
    Making decisions about the right and wrong way to behave.
  52. Termination
    Using drugs or a surgical procedure to end a pregnancy.
  53. Genetic Carrier
    An individual who carries an recessive allele for a genetic condition, but does not express that condition.
  54. Genetic Factor
    A gene that makes it more likely that an individual will develop a particular condition.
  55. Lifestyle Factor
    A behaviour that makes it more likely that an individual will develop a particular condition.
  56. DNA Profile
    Records of an individual's unique genetic code, collected by the police from suspects and crime scenes.
  57. Actuary
    A person who works for an insurance company, using statistics to analyse the risks of certain illnesses occurring.
  58. Heterozygous
    An individual with different alleles at both gene loci.
  59. Homozygous
    An individual with the same alleles present at a partucular gene locus.
  60. PGD
    Preimplantation Genetic Diagonosis; a procedure where embryos are genetically tested before they are implanted into the mother during after in-vitro fertilisation in assisted reproductive technology.
  61. Restriction Enzyme
    An enzyme that cuts DNA molecules up into pieces when a specific pattern of the code letters is met.
  62. Clone
    An individual with an identical genotype to another individual.
  63. Heterozygous
    An individual with different alleles present at both gene loci.
  64. Homozygous
    An individual with the same alleles present at both gene loci.
  65. Artificial cloning
    When the nucleus from an adult body cell is transferred to an empty unfertilised egg cell.
  66. Specialised Cell
    A cell that has undergone a process of differentiation to adapt it to a particular specific function.
  67. Stem Cell
    Unspecialised, undifferentiated cells that can develop into many other types of cell.
  68. Adult Stem Cell
    An unspecialised cell that can develop into many, but not all, types of cell.
  69. Embryonic Stem Cell
    An unspecialised cell that can develop into any type of cell.
  70. Differentiation
    The process by which cells specialise into different forms that suit the specific functions that they perform within the organism.
  71. Totipotent
    A cell that can differentiate into all the cell types of an embryo and adult.
  72. Pluripotent
    A cell that can differentiate into many cell types of the adult, but not into some of the cells from a completely different germ-line.

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