Science B4

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Science B4
2015-02-20 08:01:18
Science B4
Science B4
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  1. movement
  2. respiring
    a series of chemical reactions that release energy by breaking down large food molecules in all living cells
  3. sensitivity
    detecting changes in the surroundings (such as light levels)
  4. growth
  5. reproduction
    making a new generation of a species
  6. excretion
    getting rid of waste (e.g. carbon dioxide from respiration)
  7. nutrition
    taking food and using it as a supply of energy
  8. photosynthesis
    a series of chemical reactions that use energy from sunlight to build large food molecules in plant cells and some microorganisms (eg phytoplankton)
  9. enzymes
    proteins that speed up chemical reactions
  10. cells make enzymes
    according to the instructions carried in genes
  11. molecules
    have to be the correct shape to fit into the active site of the enzyme (the lock and key model)
  12. enzymes need a specific constant temperature
    to work at their optimum
  13. enzymes permanently
    denature if the temperature is too high
  14. increased rates of reaction
    as temperature increases
  15. at a specific pH
    enzyme works at its optimum
  16. a pH too high or low
    enzyme denatures
  17. equation of photosynthesis
    carbon dioxide + water-> light energy -> glucose + oxygen
  18. balanced equation of photosynthesis
    6CO2 + 6H2O -> light energy-> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  19. First step of photosynthesis
    light energy absorbed by the green chemical chlorophyll
  20. Second step of photosynthesis
    energy is used to bring about the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose (a sugar)
  21. Third step of photosynthesis
    oxygen is produced as a waste product
  22. chloroplasts
    contain chlorophyll and the enzymes for the reactions in photosynthesis
  23. cell membrane
    allows gases and water to pass in and out of the cell freely while presenting a barrier to other chemicals
  24. nucleus
    contains DNA which carries the genetic code for making enzymes and other proteins used in the chemical reactions of photosynthesis
  25. cytoplasm
    where the enzymes and other proteins are made
  26. minerals taken up by plant roots are used to
    make some chemicals needed by cells including nitrogen from nitrates to make proteins
  27. diffusion
    the passive overall movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
  28. movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of leaves during photosynthesis occurs by
  29. osmosis (a specific case of diffusion)
    the overall movement of water from a dilute to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane
  30. movement of water into plant roots occurs by
  31. active transport
    the overall movement of chemicals across a cell membrane requiring energy from respiration
  32. active transport is used in
    the absorption of nitrates by plant roots
  33. photosynthesis may be limited by
    temperature- carbon dioxide- light intensity
  34. techniques used in fieldwork to investigate the effect of light on plants
    light meter- quadrat- identification key
  35. light meter
    a device used to measure the amount of light
  36. Quadrat sampling
    a classic tool for the study of ecology
  37. Identification key
    a printed or computer-aided device that aids the identification of biological entities (such as plants)
  38. A transect
    is a line across a habitat or part of a habitat
  39. The number of organisms of each species can be observed and recorded at regular intervals along
    the transect
  40. mitochondria
    organelle found in the cytoplasm which generates large quantities of energy (in the form of ATP)
  41. mitochondria contain
    enzymes for the reactions in aerobic respiration
  42. all living organisms require energy released by respiration for
    some chemical reactions in cells
  43. movement and synthesis of large molecules and active transport
    all need energy released in respiration
  44. synthesis of polymers
    required by plant cells such as starch and cellulose
  45. synthesis of amino acids from glucose and nitrates is important as
    amino acids code for essential proteins
  46. aerobic respiration takes place in
    animal and plant cells and some microorganisms
  47. aerobic respiration
    requires oxygen
  48. equation for respiration
    glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water (+ energy released)
  49. balanced equation for respiration
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O
  50. anaerobic respiration takes place in
    animal- plant and some microbial cells in conditions of low oxygen or absence of oxygen
  51. examples of anaerobic respiration
    plant roots in waterlogged soil- bacteria in puncture wounds- human cells during vigorous exercise
  52. equation for anaerobic respiration in animal cells and bacteria
    glucose -> lactic acid (+ energy released)
  53. equation for anaerobic respiration in plant cells and some microorganisms like yeast
    glucose -> ethanol + carbon dioxide (+ energy released)
  54. aerobic respiration releases
    more energy per glucose molecule than anaerobic respiration
  55. anaerobic respiration of microorganisms is used in
    the production of biogas and fermentation in bread making and alcohol production