Science P1

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Science P1
2015-02-20 08:03:38
Science P1
Science P1
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  1. solar system
    the planetary system around the sun, of which the earth is a part
  2. planets
    large sphere of gas or rock orbiting a star
  3. orbit
    near circular path of an astronomical body around a larger body
  4. dwarf planets
    spherical object orbiting the sun, smaller than a planet and larger than an asteroid
  5. asteroid
    small objects in orbits in the solar system
  6. comet
    lump of rock and ice in a highly elongated orbit around the sun
  7. moons
    a large natural satellite that orbits a planet
  8. light-year
    the distance travelled by light in 1 year(9.5 million million km)
  9. universe
    the whole space and all the objects and energy within it
  10. galaxy
    group of billions of stars
  11. milky way
    the galaxy in which our sun is one of the billions of stars
  12. data
    information, usually quantitative
  13. theory
    a creative idea that may explain an observation and that can be tested
  14. real brightness
    a measure of the light emitted by a star compared to the sun, taking into account how far away it is
  15. relativebrightness
    the apparent brightness of a star as seen from earth, a dim star close to earth may appear brighter than a brighter one far away
  16. light pollution
    excessive artificial light that prevents us from seeing the stars at night and can disrupt ecosystems
  17. nuclear fusion
    nuclear reaction in which two small atomic nuclei combine to make a larger nucleus, with a large amount of energy released.
  18. supernova
    explosion of a star at the end of its life
  19. redshift
    the shift of lines in a spectrum towards the red(longer wavelength) end, due to the motion of the source away from us
  20. the big bang
    the theoretical beginning of the universe, when energy and matter expanded outwards from a point
  21. erosion
    wearing away of a material
  22. sediment
    small particles of rock
  23. fossils
    remains of plant and animals from hundreds of years ago, usually preserved in rock
  24. geologists
    scientist who studies rock and changes in the earth
  25. sedimentation
    the settling of particles in water to the bottom
  26. crust
    surface layer of the earth, made up of tectonic plates
  27. continental drift
    slow movement of continents relative to each other
  28. convection
    heat transfer in liquid or gas, when particles in a warmer region gain energy and move into cooler regions, carrying energy with them
  29. oceanic ridges
    undersea mountain ranges formed by seafloor spreading and caused by the escape and solidification of magma where tectonic plates meet
  30. plate boundary
    where two adjacent tectonic plates of the earth's crust meet or are moving apart
  31. magma
    molten rock
  32. fold mountain
    a mountain cause by folding of the earth's crust when two tectonic plates push against one another
  33. tectonic plates
    section of Earth's crust that slowly moves relative to other plates
  34. crust
    surface layer of the earth, made up of tectonic plates
  35. mantle
    semi-liquid layer of the earth beneath the crust
  36. seismic waves
    vibrations that pass through the earth following an earthquake
  37. p-waves
    longitudinal waves following an earthhquake that can travel through the molten core of the earth; they can change direction at the boundary between different layers of the earth
  38. s- waves
    transverse shock waves following an earthquake that cannot travel through the molten core of the earth
  39. shadow zone
    an area on the earth's surface where no earthquake waves can be detected because s- waves cannot pass through the earth's core and p- waves are deflected at the inner/outer core boundary
  40. longitudinal
    a wave such as a sound wave in which the disturbances are parallel to the direction of energy transfer
  41. transverse
    a wave in which the disturbances are at right angles to the direction of energy transfer
  42. amplitude
    the maximum disturbance of a wave motion from its undisturbed position
  43. wave length
    distance between two successive wave peaks
  44. frequency
    the number of waves passing a set point, or emitted by a source, per second
  45. wave equation
    the speed of a wave is equal to its frequency multiplied by its wavelength