Bones of Arm, Forearm, and Hand

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antruong
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296385
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Bones of Arm, Forearm, and Hand
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2015-02-20 16:17:57
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Anatomy
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Bones of Arm, Forearm, and Hand
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  1. What is the first bone to begin ossification during fetal development? Also last bone to complete ossification at 21 yrs.
    Clavicle
  2. What is the only bone to be ossified intramembranously?
    Clavicle
  3. Spine of scapula
    Triangluar shaped process that continues laterally as the acromion.
  4. What does the spine of the scapula divide into?
    Supraspinous and infraspinous fossae.
  5. What muscles are associated with the spine of the scapula?
    Origin for deltoid and insertion for trapezious
  6. Acromion
    Lateral end of scapular spine and articulates with clavicle. Origin for deltoid and insertion for trapezius.
  7. Coracoid process
    • Origin for coracobrachialis and biceps brachii
    • Insertion for pectoralis minor
    • Attachment site for coracoclavicular, coracohumeral, and coracoacromial ligaments and costocoracoid membrane
  8. Scapular Notch
    Bridged by superior transverse scapular ligament and converted into foramen for suprascapular nerve.
  9. How is the clavicle typically fractured?
    • 1) Fall on shoulder or outstretched hand
    • 2) Infant presses against maternal pubic symphysis during passage through birth canal
  10. What part of the clavicle is most commonly fractured?
    Middle third
  11. What happens when the middle third of the clavicle is fractured?
    • 1) Upward displacement of proximal fragment by sternocleidomastoid muscle
    • 2) Downward displacement of distal fragment by deltoid muscle and gravity.
  12. What other structures can be damaged by fx of clavicle?
    • 1) Brachial plexus causing parasthesia (numbness, tingling, burning) in skin supplied by medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous nerves
    • 2) Fatal hemmorhage from subclavian vein
    • 3) Thrombosis of subclavian vein leading to PE
  13. Glenoid cavity
    Deepened by glenoid labrum from head of humerus
  14. Supraglenoid and infraglenoid tubercles
    Origin for tendons of long heads of biceps brachii and triceps brachii
  15. Humeral Head
    Articulates with scapula at glenohumeral joint
  16. Humeral Anatomic Neck
    Indentation distal to head; provides attachement for fibrous joint capsule
  17. Greater Tubercle of Humerus
    Lateral to anatomic neck, attachment for supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles
  18. What happens with calcification of the superior transverse scapular ligament?
    May trap or compress the suprascapular nerve as it passes through scapular notch under superior transvers scapular ligament.

    Affects functions of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
  19. Lesser Tubercle of Humerus
    Lies on anterior medial side of humerus, just distal to anatomic neck. Provides insertion for subscapularis muscle.
  20. Intertubercular (Biceptal) Groove
    B/w greater and elsser tubercles, lodges tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle. Bridged by transverse humeral ligament. Insertions for pecoralis major on later lip and teres major on medial lip and latissimus dorsi on floor.
  21. Surgical Neck of Humerus
    Narrow area distal to tubercles that is a common site of fracture and is in contact with axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery
  22. Deltoid tuberosity
    Rough triangular elevation on lateral aspect of midshaft that marks insertion of deltoid muscle
  23. Spiral Groove
    Contains radial nerve, separating origin of lateral head of triceps above origin of medial head below
  24. What could the fracture of the surgical neck of humerus also injure? 
    • 1) Axillary nerve
    • 2) Posterior humeral circumflex artery
  25. What could the fracture of the humeral shaft also damage?
    • 1) Radial nerve
    • 2) Deep brachial artery in spiral groove
  26. What is a supracondylar fx?
    Fracture of distal end of humerus. Common in children when child falls on outstretched hand with elbow partially flexed. May injure median nerve.
  27. What nerve could be injured by fx of medial epicondyle?
    Ulnar nerve. May be compressed in groove behind medial epicondyle "funny bone" causing numbness.
  28. Trochlea
    Spool shaped, medial articular surface. Articulates with trochlear notch of ulna.
  29. Capitulum
    Lateral articular surface, globular shape, articulates with head of radius.
  30. Olecranon Fossa
    Posterior depression above trcholea of humerus that houses the olecranon of ulna on full extension of forearm.
  31. Coranoid Fossa
    Anterior depression above trochlea of humerus that accomodates coronoid process of ulna on flexion of elbow.
  32. Radial Fossa
    Anterior depression above the capitulum that is occupied by the head of radius during full flexion of the elbow joint.
  33. Lateral Epicondyle
    Projects from capitulum and provides origin of supinator and extensor muscles of forearm
  34. Medial Epicondyle
    • Projects from trochlea and has groove on back for ulnar nerve and superior ulnar collateral artery.
    • Attachment sites for ulnar collateral ligament, pronator teres, and common tendon of forearm flexor muscles.
  35. Radius
    Shorter than ulna, lateral to ulna.
  36. Colles' Fracture
    Fx of distal end of radius. Displacement of hand dorsally and radially. Distal fragment displaced posteriorly creating dinner fork deformity
  37. Smith's Fracture (reverse Colle's fx)
    Fx of distal end of radius with distal fragment displcaced anteriorly. May show styloid processes of radius and ulna line up on x-ray.
  38. Head of Radius (Proximal End)
    Articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna. Surrounded by annular ligament
  39. Distal End of Radius
    Articulates with proximal row of carpal bones including scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones, exluding pisiform.
  40. Radial tuberosity
    Oblong prominence just distal to neck of radius and provides attachment to biceps brachii tendon.
  41. Styloid Process of radius
    Distal end of radius, approx 1 cm distal to styloid process of ulna. Insertion of brachiordialis muscle.  Palpable in proximal part of anatomic snuffbox between extensor pllicis longs and brevis tendons.
  42. Olecranon
    Curved projection on back of elbow that provides an attachment site for triceps tendon.
  43. Coronoid Process
    Located below trochlear notch and provides attachment site for brachialis.
  44. Trochlear notch
    Recieves trochlea of humerus
  45. Ulnar tuberosity
    Roughened prominence distal to coronoid process that provides attachment site for brachialis
  46. Radial Notch
    Accommodates head of radius at proximal radioulnar joint.
  47. Head of Ulna (Distal End)
    Articulates with articular disk of distal radioulnar joint and has styloid process.
  48. Carpal Bones
    Two rows. Lateral to medial: Scaphoid, Lunate Triquetrium, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, and Hamate.
  49. Proximal Row of Carpal Bones
    • Lateral (thumb) to medial (pinky): Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrium, Pisiform
    • Articulates with radius only and articular disk
  50. Pisiform
    Sesamoid bone contained in flexor carpi ulnaris tendon.
  51. Distal Row of Carpal Bones
    L to M (thumb to pinky): Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
  52. Fracture of the scaphoid
    Fall on outstretched hand. Deep anatomical snuffbox tenderness and damages radial artery and causes avascular necrosis of bone and degenerative joint disease of wrist.
  53. Fracture of Hamate
    May injure ulnar nerve and artery because they are near hook of hamate.
  54. Bennett's Fracture
    Fracture of base of metacarpal of thumb proximal to trapezium
  55. Boxer's fracture
    • In pros: Fx neck of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
    • In non-pros: Fx neck of 5th metacarpal
  56. Guyon's canal (Ulnar tunnel)
    Formed by pisiform, hook of hamate, and pisohamate ligament deep to palmaris brevis and palmar carpal ligament. Transmits ulnar nerve and artery.
  57. Guyon's canal syndrome
    Entrapment of ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal causing pain, numbness, and tingling in ring and pinky fingers followed by loss of sensation and motor weakness. Treated surgically.
  58. Metacarpals
    Miniature long bones consisting of bases (proximal ends), shafts (bodies), and heads (distal ends). Heads form knuckles of fist.
  59. Phalanges
    Mini long bones consisting of bases, shafts, and heads. Heads of proximal and middle phalanges form knuckles. 3 in fingers, 2 in thumb.

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