history of psychology ch 1

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history of psychology ch 1
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2015-02-20 20:13:20
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history of psychology
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  1. zeitgeist
    • spirit of the times; 
    • vital to the full understanding of any historical development
  2. rationalism vs. empiricism
    RATIONALIST:
    rationalist believes that the validity or invalidity of certain propositions can best be determined by carefully applying the rules of logic
  3. rationalism vs. empiricism
    EMPIRICIST
    maintains that the source of all knowledge is sensory observation. true knowledge, therefore, can be derived from or validated only by sensory experience
  4. determinism definition
    the assumption that what is being studied can be understood in terms of causal laws
  5. biological determinism
    emphasizes the importance of physiological conditions or genetic predispositions in the explanation of behavior
  6. environmental determinism
    stresses the importance of environmental stimuli as determinants of behavior
  7. sociocultural determinism
    a form of environmental determinism, but rather than emphasizing the physical stimuli that cause behavior, it emphasizes the cultural or societal rules, regulations, customs, and beliefs that govern human behavior
  8. physical determinism
    genes, environmental stimuli & cultural customs are all accessible & quantifiable & represent forms of physical determinism
  9. psychial determinism
    most important determinants of human behavior are subjective & include a person's beliefs, emotions, sensations, perceptions, ideas, values, & goals
  10. indeterminism
    human behavior is determined but that the causes of behavior cannot be accurately measured
  11. non determinism
    • the most important causes of human behavior are self-generated
    • rejects science as a way of studying humans
    • free will vs. determinism
  12. scientific theory
    • does not start with empirical observation
    • begins with a problem - determines what observations scientists will make 
    • involves 3 stages:
    • problems
    • theories
    • criticisms 

    MUST BE REFUTABLE
  13. Popper's view of science
    • stresses logic & creativity
    • believed that there are truths about the physical world that science can approximate
  14. Kuhn's view of science
    • analysis of science stresses convention & subjective factors
    • a paradigm accepted by a group of scientists creates the "reality" they explore: truth itself is relative to the paradigm
  15. Popper & Kuhn's differences
    Popper doesn't agree with Kuhn's concept of NORMAL SCIENCE

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