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What 4 main reasons made it hard to access the living standards fully?
- Propaganda claims and unreliable official statistics
- The term "living standards" may include levels of "well-being" making it hard to measure
- Comparing to other countries can be misleading as Italy more fragile
- There were almost never "normal" economic conditions in Mussolini's Italy
From 1926, what two major developments adversely affected living standards?
- The changed context of industrial relations : the Palazzio Vidoni Pact of 1925 and the Syndical Law of 1926
- The impact of Mussolini's Battle for the Lira
Between 1927 and 1931, how many separate wage cuts were there?
What were the 3 main sections of society that were effected?
- Agricultural workers
- Industrial workers
- Middle class/white collared workers
What did the effects of the Great Depression lead for state intervention to do?
Hold down prices and wages
What 3 main negative areas were effected in relation to the economy?
- Hours of the week reduced
- Unemployment went from 300,000 to 1 million
- Wage cuts
Due to low standards how did the public react?
Few strikes or expressions of protest partly because of the impact of its policies in welfare and leisure
What would a negative view of the Fascist regime give in connection to living standards and propaganda?
- Stress the decline in living standards
- The extent to which fascist propaganda concealed how bad things real were
What would a positive view of the Fascist regime give in relation to for example welfare?
- Stress the success of State intervention in the economy - maintaining economic stability
- Would point to the success of the Corporate State in maintaining popular support - by its policies on welfare, leisure and social cohesion
What were the 3 main roles of welfare organisations?
- Partly political - gaining consent for the regime
- Partly social and economic - compensate for wage cuts and low living standards
What were the main party welfare organisations called?
Where did money from welfare schemes come from?
- Forced loans imposed on workers and employes
- From banks and local businesses
What 2 types of insurance did the regime pressure employers into giving their employees?
- Accident insurance
- Sickness insurance
- (in pay settlements)
What two main positive effects did welfare have on the regime?
- Defused the dangers of unrest that might have arisen because of depressed living standards
- Helped gain acceptance for the fascist regime
Why were new organisations for leisure activities created?
- to provide facilities
- encourage participation
What two key aims were the policy for leisure actives of the people created?
- Social control - brainwash loyalty and break TU influence
- Foster a sense of well-being - compensate low pay and living standards
What kind of activities did the OND provide?
- Local theatres
- Drama societies
- Music societies
- Mobile cinemas
Why was the OND important for social welfare?
- Gave benefits such as
- cheap rail tickets
- discounts in shops
- subsidised holidays and excursions
What was one important reason for the success of the OND?
Did not overly emphasise ideology and propaganda but concentrated on involvement and enjoyment
Evaluation of the Corporate State
What are 3 main reasons for why it can be seen as a complete failure?
- No real power over the economy
- Not an economic policy at all just a confidence trick
- Sound policies never implemented properly
On the other hand, What are 3 main reasons for why the Corporate State can be seen as a success?
- Admired and imitated abroad
- The original aim, to prevent strikes and industrial unrest, was achieved
- Politically, Mussolini won the backing of big businesses and strengthened his regime