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Author:
LaurenDavis
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296421
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8
Updated:
2015-03-30 18:37:06
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burrito
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intro to health
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  1. Genetics
    the study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed and how genes are replicated
  2. Gene
    A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
  3. Chromosome
    structure containing DNA that physically carries hereditary info; the chromosome contains the gene
  4. Genome
    all the genetic info in a cell
  5. Expression (flow of genetic info)
    Genetic information is used within a cell to produce the proteins needed for the cell to function
  6. Recombination (flow of genetic info)
    Genetic information can be transferred between cells of the same generation
  7. Replication
    Genetic information can be transferred between generations of cells
  8. Horizontal (flow of genetic info)
    goes between generation, same generation
  9. Vertical (flow of genetic info)
    1 generation to the next, 2 different generation
  10. Blueprint for a cells proteins and obtained from a parent cell or from another cell
    DNA
  11. DNA polymer of nucleotides:
    adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine
  12. DNA:
    • double helix associated with proteins
    • backbone is deoxyribose phosphate
    • strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between AT and CG
    • strands are anti parallel 5 to 3/ 3 to5
  13. Semiconservative Replication
    • 1. double helix of parental DNA separates as weaken hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides on opposite strands break in response to the action of replication enzymes
    • 2. Hydrogen bonds form between new complimentary nucleotides and each strand of the parental template to form new base pairs
    • 3. Enzymes catalyze the formation of sugar phosphate bonds between sequential nucleotides on each resulting daughter strands.
  14. Central dogma
    identifies the flow of genetic material (DNA ---> RNA--> protein)
  15. Types of RNA:
    • mRNA- messanger
    • tRNA- transfer, help build protein, bring amino acid
    • rRNA- component of ribosome
  16. Transcription
    • Synthesis of an RNA strand from a DNA template.
    • A gene's protein building instructions are transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA).
    • mRNA carries the code from DNA to the ribosomes where translation into a protein occurs.
  17. Process of transcription
    • 1. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter and DNA unwinds at the beginning of a gene
    • 2. RNA is synthesized by complementary base pairing of free nucleotides with the nucleotides bases on the template strand of DNA
    • 3. The site of synthesis moves along DNA; DNA that has been transcribed rewinds
    • 4. Transcription reaches the terminator
    • 5. RNA and RNA polymerase are released and the DNA helix reforms
  18. Translation
    • mRNA is translated in codons (three nucleotides)
    •          -the nucleotide sequence of mRNA is converted to the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.translation of mRNA begins at the start codon- AUG
    • translation ends at the nonsense codons- UAA, UAG, UGA (terminal signal)
    • Redundancy of codons are good
  19. 3 steps of translation
    • 1. initiation
    • 2. elongation
    • 3. termination
  20. Inducible operon:
    • 1. an operon consist of one or more structural genes, an operator, and a promoter. A regulatory gene is found at a site separate from the operon
    • 2. the regulatory gene encodes a repressor protein that binds to the operator, thereby preventing the transcription of the structural genes by the RNA polymerase
    • 3. if the repressor protein is blocked somehow from binding to the operator, the RNA polymerase is free to transcribe the structural gene
  21. Repressible operon (repression)
    • usually on b/c repressor protein inactive
    • can be turned off/repressed by overabundance of the end product
    • decrease or stop the transcription of the enzyme necessary for its production
    • triptophan A.A. needed to make protein attached to active repressor protein 
    • active repressor protein attaches to operator blocking RNA polymerase, cant make more, save energy
    • absorbs doesnt have to make own b/c you provide it so repressed operon
  22. What have considerable genetic variation:
    prokaryotes
  23. 3 factors of genetic diversity
    • Rapid reproduction- quick generation time
    • Mutation- bases of evolution, benefit and neg
    • Genetic recombination- horizontal transfer of same generation
  24. Prokaryotes reproduce by
    binary fission
  25. High diversity from mutations allows for rapid_____
    evolution
  26. Horizontal gene transfer mode examples
    • conjugation
    • transformation
    • transduction
  27. Transformation:
    incorporating foreign DNA from the surrounding environment
  28. Transduction
    movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages
  29. Transduction
    • random fragments of disintegrating host DNA are taken up by the bacteriophage.
    • virtually any gene from bacterium can be transmitted
  30. Bacteriophage serves as
    carrier from a donor cell to a recipient cell
  31. Transduction process (general)
    • 1. a phage infects a donor cell (cell A)
    • 2. during replication and assembly a phage particle incorporates a segment of bacterial DNA by mistakes
    • 3. Donor cell then lyses and releases the mature phages, including genetically altered one
    • 4. the altered phage absorbs to and penetrates another host cell (cell B), injecting the DNA from Cell A rather than nucleic acid
    • 5. Cell B receives this donated DNA, which recombines with its own DNA. Because the virus is defective (biologically inactive as a virus). It is unable to complete  lytic cycle. The transduced cell survives
  32. Specialized transduction
    • highly specific part of the host genome is regularly incorporated into the virus
    • explained by the prior existence of a prophage
  33. When prophage activated in specialized transduction
    prophage DNA separates from the bacterial chromosome, carrying a small segment of host genes with it
  34. Fertility genes produce
    pilus
  35. Conjugation
    gene transfer that requires direct contact between donor and recipient cell
  36. F Factor transfer (conjugation)
    transfer of the F factor or conjugative plasmid
  37. Hfr (high frequwncy) transfer
    transmission of chromosomal genes from a donor cell to a recipient cell. The plasmid jumps into the chromosome, and when the chromosome is duplicated, the plasmid and part of the chromosome are transmitted to a new cell through conjugation. This plasmid/chromosome hybrid then incorporates into to the recipient chromosome
  38. F+ cells have genes for pilus on
    plasmid
  39. Hfr cell have genes for pilus on
    main chromosome
  40. Polymerase Chain Reaction
    amplify DNA signal and make more to test it if not enough to test
  41. Gene cloning example
    E. coli to make insulin

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