Medical Terminology Quiz #6

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Medical Terminology Quiz #6
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2015-02-21 19:15:04
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Chapter 6 Medical Terminology
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  1. germ or bud (combing verb)
    blast/o
  2. germ or bud (suffix)
    -blast
  3. color (combing verb)
    chrom/o or chromat/o
  4. juice (combing verb)
    chyl/o
  5. cell (combing verb)
    cyt/o
  6. blood (combing verb)
    hem/o or hemat/o
  7. safe (combing verb)
    immun/o
  8. clear fluid (combing verb)
    lymph/o
  9. form (combing verb)
    morph/o
  10. bone marrow or spinal cord (combing verb)
    myel/o
  11. eat or swallow (combing verb)
    phag/o
  12. formation (combing verb)
    plas/o
  13. a net (combing verb)
    reticul/o
  14. spleen (combing verb)
    splen/o
  15. clot (combing verb)
    thromb/o
  16. thymus gland (combing verb)
    thym/o
  17. AIDS
    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  18. ALT
    alanine aminotransferase (enzyme)
  19. AST
    aspartate aminotransferase (enzyme(
  20. BMP
    basic metabolic panel
  21. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  22. CBC
    complete blood count
  23. CMP
    comprehensive metabolic panel
  24. CO2
    carbon dioxide
  25. CT
    computed tomography
  26. ESR
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  27. HCT or Hct
    hematocrit
  28. HGB or Hgb
    hemoglobin
  29. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus
  30. MCH
    mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin
  31. MCHC
    mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration
  32. MCV
    mean corpuscular (cell) volume
  33. NK
    natural killer (cell)
  34. PET
    positron-emission tomography
  35. PLT
    platelet count
  36. PMN
    polymorphonuclear (leukocyte)
  37. PT
    prothrombin time
  38. PTT
    partial thromboplastin time
  39. RBC
    red blood cell; red blood count
  40. WBC
    white blood cell; white blood count
  41. a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
    anticoagulant
  42. a drug that stops the flow of blood within the vessel
    hemostatic
  43. a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
    vasoconstrictor
  44. a drug that causes dilation of blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow
    vasodilator
  45. introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
    blood transfusion
  46. blood donated by and sorted for a patient for future personal use
    autologous blood
  47. blood voluntarily donated by any person for transfusion to a compatible recipient
    homologous blood
  48. transfusion of a specific blood component, such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or plasma
    blood component therapy
  49. method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
    cross-matching
  50. treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or to impair their ability to reproduce
    chemotherapy
  51. use of biologic agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense mechanisms, as seen in the treatment of AIDS, cancer, or allergy
    immunotherapy
  52. removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements followed by reinfusion
    plasmapheresis
  53. transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
    bone marrow transplant
  54. removal of a lymph node
    lymphadenectomy
  55. incision into a lymph node
    lymphadenotomy
  56. removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathologic examination
    lymph node dissection
  57. removal of the spleen
    splenectomy
  58. removal of the thymus gland
    thymectomy
  59. liquid portion of the blood and lymph; contains water, proteins, and cellular components
    plasma
  60. liquid portion of the blood that remains after clotting
    serum
  61. red blood cell; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
    erythrocyte
  62. the protein-iron compound in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
    hemoglobin
  63. white blood cell; protects the body from harmful invading substances
    leukocyte
  64. a group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm
    granulocytes
  65. a granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria
    neutrophil
  66. another term for neutrophil, referring to the many segments in its nucleus
    polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte
  67. a granular leukocyte, named for the rose-colored stain of its granules, that increases in allergic and some infectious reaction
    eosinophil
  68. a granular leukocyte, named for the dark stain of its granules, that brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues
    basophil
  69. a group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei
    agranulocyte
  70. an agranulocytic leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity; the three categories of lymphocytes are T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells
    lymphocyte
  71. an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infections
    monocyte
  72. thrombocytes; cell fragments in the blood that are essential for blood clotting
    platelets
  73. primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum, that helps to maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes
    thymus
  74. organ between the stomach and the diaphragm that filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris by performing phagocytosis, and provides an environment for lymphocytes to initiate immune responses
    spleen
  75. fluid that is circulated through the lymph vessels
    lymph
  76. microscopic vessels that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
    lymph capillaries
  77. vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
    lymph vessels
  78. specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat into the bloodstream
    lacteals
  79. white or pale yellow substance in lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals
    chyle
  80. many small, oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions
    lymph nodes
  81. collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
    lymph ducts
  82. receives lymph from the right upper part of the body
    right lymphatic duct
  83. receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extremities
    thoracic duct
  84. process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
    immunity
  85. a substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it
    antigen
  86. a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
    antibody
  87. a long-lasting immunity that results from stimulating the body to produce its own antibodies; developed either naturally, in response to an infection, or artificially, in response to the administration of a vaccine
    active immunity
  88. a short-lasting immunity that results from foreign antibodies that are convey either naturally, through the placenta to a fetus, or artificially, by injection of a serum containing antibodies
    passive immunity
  89. presence of small red blood cells
    microcytosis
  90. presence of large red blood cells
    macrocytosis
  91. presence of red blood cells of unequal size
    anisocytosis
  92. presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells
    poikilocytosis
  93. an increased number of immature erythrocytes in the blood
    reticulocytosis
  94. an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
    erythropenia
  95. an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
    lymphocytopenia
  96. a decreased number of neutrophils
    neutropenia
  97. an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
    pancytopenia
  98. an abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood, impairing the clotting process
    thrombocytopenia
  99. breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
    hemolysis
  100. impaired immunologic defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or by therapy with immunosuppressive agents
    immunocompromised
  101. impaired ability to provide an immune response
    immunosuppression
  102. enlarged lymph nodes
    lymphadenopathy
  103. enlargement of the spleen
    splenomegaly
  104. a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  105. a condition of reduced numbers of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or packed red cells in the blood, resulting in a diminished ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues
    anemia
  106. a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
    aplastic anemia
  107. a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron that affects the production of hemoglobin and is characterized by small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin
    iron deficiency anemia
  108. a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
    pernicious anemia
  109. any disorder characterized by abnormal function of immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue destruction or loss of function; rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are examples
    autoimmune disease
  110. a disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh-positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood, causing red blood cells destruction in the fetus; a blood transfusion is necessary to save the fetus
    erythroblastosis fetalis
  111. presence or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells, which causes a reaction between Rh-positive blood and Rh-negative blood
    Rh factor
  112. presence of antigens
    Rh positive
  113. absence of antigens
    Rh negative
  114. hereditary disorder with an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body
    hemochromatosis
  115. a group of hereditary bleeding disorder caused by a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulations of blood
    hemophilia
  116. chronic or acute malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
    leukemia
  117. disorder within the bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells; usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
    myelodysplasia
  118. any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
    lymphoma
  119. process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organ
    metastasis
  120. condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells in blood along with enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue, and sore throat
    mononucleosis
  121. increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
    polycythemia
  122. systemic disease caused by infection with microorganisms and their toxins in circulating blood
    septicemia
  123. incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
    phlebotomy or venipuncture
  124. test of the fluid portion of blood to measure the amounts of its chemical consituents
    blood chemistry
  125. specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry test performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions
    blood chemistry panels
  126. battery of test used as a general screen for disease; includes test for calcium, carbon dioxide, chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, and blood urea nitrogen
    basic metabolic panel (BMP)
  127. tests performed in addition to the basic panel for expanded screening: albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, protein alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase
    comprehensive metabolic panel
  128. test to determine if infection is present in the blood stream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms; the specimen is observed, and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
    blood culture
  129. used in monitoring the course of HIV and in timing the treatment of AIDS; the normal adult range is 600 - 1500 cells in a given volume of blood
    CD4 cell count
  130. timed test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle through a volume of plasma
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  131. test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
    partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
  132. substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
    thromboplastin
  133. test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood
    prothrombin time (PT)
  134. protein substance in the blood that is essential to the blotting process
    prothrombin
  135. a common laboratory blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes and typically includes the component test that follow; test results are usually reported along with normal values so that the clinician can interpret the results based on the instrumentation used by the laboratory; normal ranges also may vary depending on the region and climate
    complete blood count (CBC)
  136. a count of the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
    white blood count (WBC)
  137. a count of the number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
    red blood count (RBC)
  138. a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin
    hemoglobin (HGB or Hgb)
  139. a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
    hematocrit (HCT or Hct)
  140. calculations of RBC, HGB, and HTC results to determine the average size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of red blood cells to classify an anemia
    blood indices
  141. calculation of the volume of individual red blood cells using HCT and RBC results: HCT/RBC
    mean corpuscular (cell) volume MCV
  142. calculation of the content of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell using HGB and RBC results: HGB/RBC
    mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin MCH
  143. calculations of the average hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results: HGB/HCT
    mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration MCHC
  144. determination of the number of each type of white blood cell in a stained blood smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined
    differential count
  145. as part of identifying and counting the white blood cells, the condition, size, and shape of red blood cells in the background of the smeared slide are noted
    red cell morphology
  146. calculations of the number of thrombocytes in the blood; the normal adult range is 150,000-450,000 platelets in a given volume of blood
    platelet count (PLT)
  147. needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
    bone marrow aspiration
  148. pathologic examination of bone marrow tissue
    bone marrow biopsy
  149. an x-ray image of lymph node or vessel obtained after injection of a contrast medium
    lymphangiogram
  150. full body x-ray CT images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
    computed tomography (CT)
  151. scanning techniques combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of anatomy and metabolic function within the body; useful in determing the recurrence of cancers or to measure response to therapy; commonly used in evaluating lymphoma
    positron-emission tomography (PET)

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