CH 17 & 18 SG

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tpvang
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296454
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CH 17 & 18 SG
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2015-02-22 01:42:24
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CH 17 & 18 SG
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  1. Heat is distributed from active organs to cooler parts of the body by?
    A) the liver
    B) lymph
    C) the kidneys
    D) blood
    D) blood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The average human body temperature is °F and °C is?
    98.6°F/37°C
  3. In a cold environment, the arterioles in the dermis will?
    A) dilate to conserve heat
    B) dilate to lose heat
    C) constrict to conserve heat
    D) constrict to lose heat
    C) constrict to conserve heat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. when sweating takes place, excess body heat is lost in the?
    A) filtration of sweat
    B) evaporation of sweat
    C) osmosis of sweat
    D) secretion of sweat
    B) evaporation of sweat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. when the body is at rest, the skeletal muscle produces significant amount of heat because of?
    A) oxygen debt
    B) forceful contractions
    C) lactic acid production
    D) muscle tone
    D) muscle tone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. from the respiratory tract, a small amount of heat is lost in?
    A) inhaled oxygen
    B) exhaled water vapor
    C) inhaled water vapor
    D) exhaled carbon dioxide
    B) exhaled water vapor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. the movement of air across the skin results in heat loss by the process of?
    A) convection
    B) evaportion
    C) conduction
    D) radiation
    A) convection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The part of the brain that regulates body temperature is the?
    A) hypothalamus
    B) cerebrum
    C) thalamus
    D) medulla
    A) hypothalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. the body's response to a warm environment includes all of these except?
    A) increased muscle tone
    B) vasodilation in the dermis
    C) increased sweating
    D) decreased muscle tone
    A) increased muscle tone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. chemical produced during inflammation that cause fevers are?
    A) antibacterial pyrogens
    B) endogenous pyrogens
    C) pyrogenic pyrogens
    D) exogenous pyrogens
    B) endogenous pyrogens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. a fever may be beneficial because?
    A) WBCs may be inhibited
    B) RBCs are activated
    C) the growth of some pathogens may be inhibited
    D) RBCs are inhibited
    C) the growth of some pathogens may be inhibited
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. the term for synthesis reactions is?
    Anabolism
  13. The krebs cycle and cytochrome transport system takes place in which part of the cell?
    A) mitochrondria
    B) ribosomes
    C) cytoplasm
    D) nucleus
    A) mitochrondria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. the most important synthesis use for amino acids are?
    A) proteins and non-essential amino acids
    B) essential amino acids and enzymes
    C) proteins and essential amino acids
    D) enzymes and phospholipids
    A) proteins and non-essential amino acids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. most of the ATP produced during cell respiration is produced during which stage?
    A) glycolysis
    B) Cytochrome transport system
    C) Krebs cycle
    D) transamination
    B) Cytochrome transport system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. the basal metabolic rate is the term for the body's heat production when the body is?
    A) performing light activity
    B) exercising strenuously
    C) in a stress situation
    D) at rest
    D) at rest
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Vitamins can best be described as?
    A) chemicals often necessary for the functioning of enzymes.
    B) sources of energy
    C) a chemical form of stored energy
    D) building blocks of new tissue
    A) chemicals often necessary for the functioning of enzymes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. a renal corpuscle consists of?
    A) a renal tubule and peritubular capillaries.
    B) a renal tubule and bowman's capsule
    C) a glomerulus and bowman's capsule
    D) glomerulus and peritubular capillaries
    C) a glomerulus and bowman's capsule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. the kidneys are located behind the?
    A) spinal column
    B) renal vein
    C) renal artery
    D) peritoneum
    D) peritoneum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. All of these are found at the hilus of a kidney except the?
    A) ureter
    B) renal vein
    C) urethra
    D) renal artery
    C) urethra
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. the cavity within the kidney that collects urine is the?
    A) urinary bladder
    B) renal vein
    C) renal pelvis
    D) ureter
    C) renal pelvis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. if body fluids are becoming too acidic, the kidneys will excrete more of these ions in urine?
    A) hydrogen ions
    B) sodium ions
    C) potassium ions
    D) aldosterone
    A) hydrogen ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The hormone that directly increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys is?
    ADH
  24. the process of glomerular filtration takes place from the?
    A) efferent arteriole to glomerulus
    B) peritubular capillaries to renal tubule
    C) renal tubule to peritubular capillaries
    D) glomerulus to afferent arteriole
    C) renal tubule to peritubular capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. the renal pyramids make up the?
    A) renal cortex
    B) renal fascia
    C) renal medulla
    D) renal pelvis
    C) renal medulla
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. renal filtrate differs from blood plasma in this way:
    A) there are no blood cells in filtrate
    B) there is more protein in filtrate
    C) only waste products are present in filtrate
    D) there are no nutrients in filtrate
    A) there are no blood cells in filtrate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. the part of the urinary bladder that actually eliminates the urine is the?
    detrusor muscle
  28. voluntary control of urination is provided by the?
    external urethral sphincter
  29. in tubular reabsorption, glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by the process of?
    Active transport
  30. The glomerular filtration rate will decrease if?
    A) blood flow through the kidneys increases
    B) blood flow through the kidneys decreases
    C) the amount of waste products in the blood increases
    D) the amount of waste products in the blood decreases
    B) blood flow through the kidneys decreases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. normal values for daily urinary output and pH of urine might be?
    A) 4.0 L/6.5
    B) 1.5 L/ 6.0
    C) 2.5 L/3.0
    D) 2.0 L/9.0
    B) 1.5 L/ 6.0
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. urine is propelled through ureter by?
    A) smooth muscle
    B) ciliated epithelium
    C) skeletal muscle
    D) striated muscle
    A) smooth muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. the kidneys are protected from mechanical injury by the?
    A) pelvic bone and smooth muscle
    B) smooth muscle and rib cage
    C) adipose tissue and pelvic bone
    D) rib cage and adipose tissue.
    D) rib cage and adipose tissue.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. If body fluids are becoming too alkaline, the kidneys will excrete more of these ions in urine?
    bicarbonate ions.
  35. creatinine is a nitrogenous waste product that comes from energy metabolism in?
    A) the liver
    B) the muscles
    C) the brain
    D) the lungs
    B) the muscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Major pathway of heat loss from the body is by way of the _____ because it covers the body surface.
    Skin
  37. secondary pathway of heat loss is by way of the _____ tract as heat is lost in water vapor in exhaled air.
    respiratory
  38. minor pathways of heat loss by way of ______ and _____ tracts because urine and faces are at body temperature when excreted.
    urinary/digestive
  39. involves air currents moving warmer air away from skin is?
    convection
  40. Both processes involve loss of heat to air or objects that touch the skin.
    radiation/conduction
  41. for radiation and conduction to be effective heat loss mechanism, the external environment must be _____ (cooler/hotter) than the body temperature.
    cooler
  42. In the dermis, this will increase blood flow and heat loss
    vasodilation
  43. in the dermis, this will decrease blood flow and help conserve heat.
    vasoconstriction
  44. Sweat is secreted by _____ sweat glands.
    Eccrine
  45. the part of the brain that may be likened to a thermostat and that regulates body temperature is the?
    Hypothalamus
  46. hypothalamus receives sensory information about the environmental temperature from the _______ in the skin.
    Temperature receptors
  47. The type of environment: vasoconstriction in the dermis; shivering may occur to produce more heat; sweating decreases.
    cold environment
  48. The type of environment: sweating increases; vasodilation in the dermis; muscle tone decreases to produce less heat
    Warm environment
  49. the potential energy in food is measured in units called?
    Kilocalories/calories
  50. when excess amino acids are used for energy production, the first step is deamination in which the  ______ group is removed.
    Amine
  51. the term for breakdown/decomposition reactions is ______.
    catabolism
  52. the term for synthesis/building reactions is?
    anabolism
  53. the primary uses for ______ are the synthesis of the non-essential amino acids and the synthesis of proteins
    Amino acids
  54. fatty acids and glycerol may be used to synthesize ______, which are then stored in adipose tissue.
    True fats
  55. fatty acids and glycerol may also be used to  synthesize the _______ that are part of cell membranes.
    phospholipids
  56. Although metabolic rate means energy production, it is usually expressed as the production of which form of energy?
    Heat
  57. Units to measure heat production?
    kilocalories
  58. The E production required simply to maintain life is called the?
    Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  59. how many kilocalories are available in 1 gram of the following?
    Carbohydrates: __
    Fat: __
    Protein: __
    Alcohol: __
    4 kcal/g, 9 kcal/g, 4 kcal/g, 7 kcal/g
  60. the outer layer of kidney tissue; contains the renal corpuscles and convuluted tubules of nephrons.
    Renal cortex
  61. The inner layer of the kidney tissue.  consists of wedge-shaped pieces called renal pyramids. contains the loops of Henle and the collecting tubes of nephrons.
    renal medulla
  62. A cavity formed by the expansion of the ureter within the kidney at the hilius; the calyces are funnel-shaped extensions of this part; urine enters from the papillae of the pyramids.
    Renal pelvis
  63. funnel-shaped extensions of Renal pelvis.
    Calyces
  64. consists of wedge-shaped pieces in the renal medulla
    renal pyramids
  65. structural and function units of the kidneys
    nephrons
  66. each nephron consists of two major parts called the _____ and the _____.
    renal corpuscle/ renal tubule
  67. a renal corpuscle consists of a capillary network called the glomerulus, which is surrounded by _____, expanded end of a renal tubule.
    bowman's capsule
  68. The fluid in bowman's capsule is now called?
    renal filtrate
  69. glomerular filtration takes place in which major part of the nephron?
    renal corpuscle
  70. the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the amount of renal filtrate formed by the kidneys in _____ (time) and is about 100-125 mL per minute.
    1 min
  71. if blood flow through the kidneys is decreases, GFR will ______(decrease/increase).
    decrease
  72. if blood flow through the kidneys increases, the GFR will _____ (decrease/increase).
    increases
  73. most absorption and secretion (about 65%) takes place in the proximal convoluted tubules, whose cells have ______ that greatly
    microvilli
  74. the two ureters are located _____ the peritoneum of the dorsal abdominal cavity.
    behind
  75. each ureter extends from the _____ of a kidney to the lower posterior side of the urinary bladder.
    hilus
  76. located behind the pubic bone.
    urinary bladder
  77. in men, the bladder is _____ to the prostate gland.
    superior
  78. in women, the bladder is _____ to the uterus
    inferior
  79. carries urine from the urinary bladder to the exterior.
    urethra
  80. in women, the urethra is ______ to the vagina.
    anterior
  81. in men, the urethra extends through the prostate gland and the penis and carries semen as well as urine.
    urethra in men
  82. another name for urination reflex is?
    micturition reflex
  83. which part of the CNS is directly involved in this urination reflex?
    Spinal cord
  84. the yellow color of urine is often called?
    straw or amber
  85. urine is often ______ (clear/cloudy) in appearance
    clear
  86. normal specific gravity of urine is?
    1.010 to 1.025
  87. urine is approximately 95% _____ which is the solvent for wast products and salts.
    water
  88. takes place from the blood in the peritubular capillaries to the filtrate in the renal tubules and can ensure that wastes such as creatinine or excess H+  ions are actively put into the filtrate to be excreted.
    Tubular secretion
  89. the cells of the renal tubule use ATP to transport most of the useful materials from the filtrate to the blood. these useful materials include glucose, amino acids, vitamins and positive ions.
    active transport
  90. many of the negative ions that are returned to the blood are reabsorbed following the reabsorption of positive ions, because unlike charges attract.
    Passive transport
  91. the reabsorption of water follows the reabsorption of minerals, especially sodium ions.
    Osmosis
  92. small proteins are engulfed by proximal tubule cells.
    pinocytosis

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