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What is functional Specialization?
- the different neuro pathways and different areas of the brain are specialized for specific kinds of information.
- such as color, texture, motion, and depth.
What is retinotopic mapping?
the arrangement of neurons in the visual system that are consistent from the retina to the visual areas of the brain
What part of the brain modifies information(top-down processing) and 90 percent of information passes through?
Lateral Geniculate nucleus (LGN)
What are the three layers of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus?
- Magnocellular layers
- Parvocellular Layers
- Koniocellular Layers
Which Layer of the LGN has dynamic visual properties; motion and flicker, and receives signals from the parasol retinal ganglion cells?
Which layer of the LGN is in charge of static visual properties; color, texture, form and depth? Also receiving signals from midget retinal ganglion cells?
Which layer of the LGN is inconclusive? and might be associated with color and receives signals from bistratified retinal ganglion cells?
Who did visual experiments on monkeys in regarding magnocellular layers and parvocellular layers?
Schiller and Logothetis
- if 90 percent of neural signal goes to the LGN where does the other 10 go?
- Superior Coliculus
Where is the V1 (primary visual cortex) located?
What is concerned with recognizing objects by their position and the orientation of their edges?
- concerned with the “what”
Who accidentally discovered things related to the V1
Hubel and Wiesel
Which cells respond best to bars of light stimuli with a particular orientation and location on the retina ?
- Simple cells
- has a preffered orientation to edges
- simple cells are affected by orientation and luminance contrast.
Which cell is the most abundant cell type in the visual cortex?
Which cell is most tuned for orientation and luminance contrast DOES NOT matter?
Which Column in the V1 only receives signals from the left eye or right eye only, not both?
Ocular Dominance column
Which column varies across a range of preferred orientations and changes color of dye when neural activity is present?
Which Cell sends signals to the 4ca (sideways a) of V1?
- Magnocellular Cells
- thick bands of the v2
- information about movement/spatial location
- the sideways “a” is a symbol.
Which Cells send signals to the 4cb of V1?
- Parvocellular cells
- thin bands of v2
- information about form and color
Which pathway goes goes in this order: V1 > V2 > MT > Parietal Cortex, and represents properties related to an object’s motion or location?
- Dorsal pathway
- also known as the “where/how” pathway
Which pathway goes in this order: V1 > V2 > V4 > inferotemperal cortex, and represents information related to an object’s identity, color, and shape?
- Ventral Pathway
- also known as the “what” pathway
Look up Ungerleider and Mishkin (1982)
- has to do with lesions in the brain that focus on landmark tasks vs. object tasks.
- “where” vs. “what” tasks.
What is Visual Agnosia?
- cannot recognize objects
- could reach and grasp objects
- could not determine orientation(shape perception)
What is Optic Ataxia?
unable to guide an object through a hole in the right orientation
What is Lateral Intraparietal (LIP)?
- eye movement of target/shifts in attention
- “seeing a cup from the corner of your eye and turning to focus on it”
Which parts of the parietal lobe is activated to increase activity for reaching in a particular direction?
Anterior Intraparietal(LIP) and Medial Intraparietal(MIP)
Which part of the brain is in charge of visually guiding attention, part of the parietal lobe and the dorsal pathway?