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  1. Sepsis
    microbial contamination
  2. asepsis
    absence of significant contamination
  3. aseptic surgery techniques prevent
    microbial contamination of wounds
  4. Sterilization
    removing all bacterial life, good and bad are dead
  5. commercial sterilization
    Killing C. botulinum endospores
  6. disinfection
    removing pathogens, bad make sick
  7. antisepsis
    disinfection of living tissue on skin, ex iodine and alcohol
  8. degerming
    removing microbes from a limited area like the skin through hand washing
  9. sanitization
    lowing microbial counts on eating utensils and objects used in restaurants, not enough pathogens to make sick
  10. biocide/germicide
    kills microbes
  11. bacteriostasis
    inhibiting, not killing microbes
  12. Effectiveness of treatment depends on:
    • number of microbes begin with
    • environment (organic matter, temperature, biofilms) what kind of contamination?
    • time of exposure- how long sit there?
    • microbial characteristics- endospores, gram positive/negative
  13. Microbial Death curve
    • high population load takes longer to kill them
    • low population load takes quicker time to kill them all
  14. Actions of microbial control agents
    • alteration of membrane permeability(stuff in and out)
    • damage to proteins- cant metabolize properly so die
    • damage to nucleic acid- DNA/RNA
  15. relative resistant of different microbial types to microbial control agents (more resistant to less resistant)
    • prions
    • bacterial endospores
    • mycobacterium- waxy cell wall
    • staph and pseudomonas
    • protozoan cyst
    • protozoan trophozoites
    • most gram negative bacteria
    • fungi and fungal spores
    • non enveloped viruses
    • most gram positive bacteria
    • enveloped viruses
  16. Most common physical control method
  17. At temperatures above the growth range
    • proteins and nucleic acids are destroyed
    • water is removed
  18. direct flame to kill microbes
  19. Thermal death point (TDP)
    lowest temp at which all cells in a culture are killed in 10 mins. temperature need. lowest temp variable
  20. Thermal death time (TDT)
    time during which all cells in a culture are killed
  21. Moist heat sterilzation
    moist heat denatures proteins
  22. autoclave
    steam under pressure
  23. Steam must contact's items
  24. Pasteurization
    reduce spoilage organisms and pathogens
  25. Equivalent treatment for pasteurization at 63C
    for 30 mins
  26. High temp short time for pasteurization
    72C for 15 sec
  27. ultra high temp
    140C for <1sec
  28. Not affected by pasteurization
    bacterial endospore
  29. Survive pastuerization
    thermoduric organisms
  30. Dry heat sterilization
    kills by oxidation
  31. Kills by oxidation:
    • dry heat
    • flaming
    • incineration
    • hot air sterilization
  32. Hot air equivalent treatment
    170C for 2 hours
  33. Autoclave (steam under pressure) equivalent treatment
    121C for 15 mins
  34. Achieve sterilization with most heat _____ temp and _____ time than dry heat
    lower temp and shorter time
  35. Extract bacteria endospores
    membrane filtration
  36. _____ _____ lower microbial metabolic and growth rates, retarding spoilage
    low temperature
  37. lower temperature examples
    • refrigeration
    • deep freezing
    • lyophilization
  38. Denatures proteins
    high pressure
  39. prevents metabolism- drying removes water necessary for microbes to live
  40. Osmotic pressure causes
  41. Plasmolysis
    • salting causes water to diffuse out of organisms, causing dehydration and death
    • difference in solution and organism
  42. Used to control microbes in food, affects cell metabolism and physiology
  43. Came into widespread use in 1800s
    medical chemicals
  44. chemical agents rarely achieve
  45. chemical agents do _____
    disinfect (destroy pathogens)
  46. Factors affecting germicidal activity of chemicals:
    • nature of the microorganism being treated
    • nature of the material being treated
    • degree of contamination
    • time of exposure
    • strength of chemical action of the germicide- uses lowest concentration the infected
  47. Disc diffusion method
    look at zone of inhibition
  48. Clinical focus
    which preparation is more effective
  49. Halogens oxidize ______
  50. Chlorine keeps bacterial populations _____ in municipal water supplies and swimming pools
  51. iodine is used to
    disinfect wounds, water, and restaurant equipment
  52. _____ and _____ compounds denature porteins
    Phenol and Phenolic compounds
  53. Interfere with microbial metabolism
    Heavy metals
  54. Reactive with proteins, and disrupt cellular metabolism, killing microbes
    • mercury
    • copper
    • silver
  55. Used to prevent gonorrheal ophthalmia neonatorum
    silver nitrate
  56. used as a topical cream on burns
    silver sulfadiazine
  57. is and algicide
    copper sulfate
  58. Denatures proteins and disrupts membranes
  59. Effective against vegetative cells but not spores
  60. Membrane disruption is caused by
    lipid dissolution/gram negative
  61. Act as surface active agents
    Soaps and detergents
  62. Soaps remove microbes by _____ and ______ particles on the skin
    emulsifying and solubilizing
  63. Detergents are
  64. Detergents cause
    cytoplasm leakage from microbial membranes
  65. React with cell membranes and destroy some bacteria and viruses
    Quaternary ammonium
  66. Organic acids:
    inhibit metabolism and control molds and bacteria in foods and cosmetics
  67. Organic acid examples:
    sorbic acid, benzoic acid, calcium propionate
  68. Prevent endospore germination
  69. Antibiotics _____ and _______ prevent spoilage of cheese
    nisin and natamycin
Card Set:
2015-03-30 22:36:42

intro to health
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