Antibiotics

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Author:
dtminhthu
ID:
29650
Filename:
Antibiotics
Updated:
2010-08-15 09:17:22
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Pharm antibiotics
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Antibiotics
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  1. Beta-lactam drugs
    Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Aztreonam, Imipenem
  2. able to kill the cell in any phase
    Aminoglycosides and Fluoroquinolones
  3. Lincosamides
    • Clindamycin, Lincomycin
    • Protein synthesis inhibitors (50S)
  4. inhibits peptidyl transferase (50S)
    Chloramphenicol
  5. dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor
    trimethoprim
  6. Sulfa drug MOA
    inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase
  7. Method of resistance to Chloramphenicol
    Reduced uptake into cell
  8. Method of resistance to tetracycline
    Active efflux from the cell
  9. resistance via low binding affinity for B-Lactam antibiotics
    • Methicillin resistance by Staphylococci
    • Penicillin resistance by Pneumococci and Enterococci
  10. method of resistance to aminoglycosides
    Inactivation by enzymes
  11. method of resistance to sulfa
    Overproduction of target
  12. blocks Alanine Racemase (1st step in cell wall synthesis)
    Cycloserine
  13. binds the D-ala, D-ala terminus of the glycopeptide polymer and prevents the ultimate cross-linking accomplished by transpeptidase
    Vancomycin
  14. inhibit transpeptidase --> block cross linking in cell wall synthesis
    Beta lactams.
  15. Monobactams
    Aztreonam
  16. Carbapenems
    Imipenem
  17. drugs w/ time-dependent bactericidal activity
    Penicillins, carbapenems, cephalosporins, monobactams
  18. Lipopeptide that binds to membrane & cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis
    Daptomycin
  19. Post antibiotic effect, t1/2 = 8 hr
    Daptomycin
  20. Toxicity of Daptomycin
    Myositis
  21. Which drug is alternate for Vancomycin?
    Daptomycin
  22. Short t1/2 (30-60 mins), excreted in urine unchanged, poor penetration to CSF, Brain, Eye, Prostate, Phagocytic Cells
    Penicillins
  23. cell wall synthesis inhibitors that dont have cross hypersensitivity w/ penicillins
    aztreonam and vancomycin
  24. amoxicillin administered w/ what to inhibit beta lactamase?
    Clavulanic acid
  25. Cefazolin, Cephalothin, Cephalexin
    1st generation cephalosporins
  26. Cefuroxime, Cefamandole, Ceftoxitin, Cefotetan
    2nd generation cephalosporin
  27. Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime
    3rd generation cephalosporin
  28. Cefepime
    4th generation cephalosporin
  29. Disulfiram Reaction is present in...
    Cefalozin, Cefamandole, Cefoperazone, metronidazole (Methylthiotetrazole ring)
  30. aztreonam is used to treat pseudomonas and serratia because..
    it is resistance to beta lactamase
  31. metabolized in urinary tract brush border by dipeptidases to an inactive metabolite. Therefore, it will be ineffective in UTI
    Imipenem
  32. Which drug need to be used w/ Cilastin in order to treat UTI?
    Imipenem
  33. Not oral, but iv only. Renal out. Ototoxicity
    Vancomycin
  34. Which condition would the use of Vancomycin orally be ok?
    C diff enterocolitis
  35. regularly used to treat Sepsis, endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci
    Vancomycin
  36. method of resistance replacement of the D-ala-D-ala with D-ala-D-lactate is towards which drug?
    Vancomycin
  37. Sulfa drugs are bactericidal or bacterostatic?
    bacterostatic
  38. Alteration of pteridine (dihydropteroate) synthase and Increased PABA or alternate pathway are resistant methods for which drug?
    Sulfa
  39. Displace drugs from albumin binding sites for warfarin (antigoagulant), methotrexate (DFR blocker, Cancer drug), chlorpropamide (Insulin release), and tolbutamide (Insulin release)
    sulfa
  40. Procaine and other drugs derived from PABA may interfere w/ activity of...
    sulfa
  41. Stevens-Johnson rxn is induced by which drug?
    fever, sore throat, and fatigue. Ulcers & other lesions begin to appear in mucous membranes, almost always in mouth & lips but also in genital & anal regions. Lesions in mouth usually extremely painful. Conjunctivitis. A rash of round lesions ~1inch arises on face, trunk, arms & legs, and soles of feet, but usually not on scalp.
    sulfa
  42. Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor
    Trimethoprim
  43. DNA gyrase inhibitor
    Cipro. Quinolones & fluoroquinolones
  44. How does aminoglycosides become bactericidal?
    Cationic antibiotic molecules create fissures in the cell membrane
  45. Aminoglycosides
    Streptomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin
  46. antibiotics w/ Post antibiotic effect
    Daptomycin, aminoglycosides,
  47. Aminoglycoside side effects
    Neuromuscular Blockade. Decr ACh release. Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity
  48. Tetracycline toxicity
    • Hypoplasia, teeth problems, hepatotoxicity in pregnant women, Fanconi's syndrome: impairmt in proximal tubular fxn
    • of kidney and other renal dz
  49. Chloramphenicol toxicities
    Gray baby syndrome. Bone marrow suppression --> asplastic anemia. optic neuritis

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