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2015-03-30 18:36:22

intro to health
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  1. Chemotherapy
    The use of drugs to treat a disease (any chem treatment)
  2. Prophylaxis
    use of a drug to prevent imminent infection of person at risk
  3. Antimicrobial chemotherapy
    use of chemotherapeutic drugs to control infection
  4. antimicrobials
    any antimicrobial drug
  5. antibiotics
    naturally made by a living organism
  6. semi synthetics drugs
    chemically modified in lab after being isolated from natural sources
  7. synthetic drug
    drug produced entirely by chemical reactions
  8. narrow spectrum
    (limited spectrum) better, kills only limited array of bacteria
  9. broad spectrum
    (extended spectrum) kill all, even good bacteria
  10. Fleming
    1928, antibiotic penicillin
  11. Ehrlich
    1910, concept of selective toxicity
  12. Antimicrobial types:
    • synthetic
    • antibiotics
  13. Selective toxicity
    drugs should harm pathogens but not the host
  14. toxic dose
    harm to the host
  15. therapeutic dose
    eliminates pathogens in the host
  16. Domagk
    1935, Prontosil was a red dye found to inhibit some gram positive bacterial species, synthetic
  17. Broad spectrum drugs affect many
    taxonomic groups
  18. Narrow spectrum drugs affect only a few
  19. Testing for Drug susceptibility disc diffusion test (kirby Bauer test)
    • plate bacteria on muller- media
    • bacteria diffuses through called muller hinton
    • smaller diameter of zone of inhibition- resistant to antibiotic
    • bigger is better look at chart, measure and see if resistant susceptible
  20. E-test
    tell us susceptible/resistant understand MIC
  21. Testing for drug susceptibility
    tube dilution tests
  22. tube dilution tests
    • more sensitive and quantitative than the kirby bauer test 
    • antimicrobial is diluted serially in tubes of broth
  23. minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
    • the smallest concentration (highest dilution) of drug that visibly inhibits growth
    • NOT KILL
  24. Action of Antimicrobial Drugs (mode of action)
    • 1. inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • 2. inhibition of protein synthesis
    • 3. inhibition of nucleic acid and transcription
    • 4. injury to plasma membrane 
    • 5. inhibition of synthesis of essential metabolites
  25. the beta-lactam family
  26. ampicillin inhibits
    peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  27. Allergy issues with
    natural penicillin
  28. Penicillin resistant bacteria effective against some
    gram negative
  29. Antibiotics killing by
    halting translation (RNA to protein)
  30. tetracyclines
    selectively and action based on ribosomal differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  31. disease cause by toxicity
  32. interferes with RNA synthesis
  33. Rifampin
    • effective against tb, leprosy, and meningitis
    • can cause liver damage
    • has acid fast cell wall- waxy michollic acid
  34. Mechanism of antibiotic resistance:
    • 1. Altered metabolic pathway
    • 2. Antibiotic inactivation
    • 3. active export of antibiotic
  35. Example of altered metabolic pathway
    • Sulfonamides- inhibit folic acid so they make folic acid in another way 
    • Streptoccus
  36. Example antibiotic inactivation
    Neissera gonorrhera- break down penicillin
  37. Example of active export of antibiotic
    Staphylococcus export of tetracyclines- spit out antibiotic
  38. Antifungal drugs cause
    membrane damage, causing content to leak out
  39. Used against Candida albicans (yeast infection) in intestines or vagina
  40. Amphotericin B
    used against serious systemic fungal infections (entire body- lung migrate through blood stream)
  41. Goal of Antiprotozoal Agent
    eradicate the parasite
  42. antimalarial drugs that accumulate in parasitized red blood cells
  43. Aminoquinolines interfere with
    parasites ability to break down and digest hemoglobin
  44. interfere with DNA synthesis of protozoans
  45. Nitroimidazoles used to treat
    • amebiasis- amoeba
    • giardiasis- intestinal, ingest
    • trichomoniasis- sexually transmitted
  46. used  against African trypanosomiasis- protozoa damage red blood cells
  47. Antihelminthic agents
  48. Praziqyantel
    changes membrane permeability in cestodes and trematodes
  49. praziqyantel cause
    contractions and paralysis in the parasite- paralyze then dislodge them by pooping out (pass)
  50. Mebendazole
    inhibits nutrients uptake in worms
  51. avermectins
    cause paralysis in roundworms
  52. Drugs to treat protozoa and helminthic infections
    synthetic, made in lab to treat both kinds of parasites
  53. Action of antiviral drugs (mode of action)
    • 1. inhibition of virus entry- receptor, fusion, uncoating, inhibitors
    • 2. inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
    • 3. inhibition of viral assembly/release
    • Virus goes in cell so have to actually kill cells to get rid of them
  54. Antibiotic resistance
    improper or excessive use of antibiotics causes antibiotic resistance
  55. Unnecessarily large antibiotic doses allow
    resistant strains to overgrow susceptible ones
  56. Superinfection occurs
    when resistant strains spread to other patients
  57. antibiotics are available over the counter in developing countries allowing incorrect use and overuse
  58. Antibiotics used in
    livestock feeds
  59. Antiobiotics transmitted to humans in livestock through
    meat consumption
  60. bacterial cells can pass resistance genes to other bacterial cells
  61. Example of Superinfection
    • UTI
    • Candida albicans
    • antibiotics associated colitis
  62. Urinary tract infection
    caused by E. coli, treated with antibiotics
  63. Lactobacilli
    in female vagina are killed by the broad spectrum cephalosporin used to treat the UTI
  64. overgrowth of _____ _____ occurs causing vaginal yeast infection or oral thrush, opportunistic infection
    candida albicans
  65. Oral therapy with ______ _____ ________ in antibiotics associated colitis
    tetracyclines, clindamycin, and broad spectrum penicillin
  66. Oral therapy with tetracycline, clindamycin and broad spectrum penicillin kill off
    normal biota of the colon
  67. Clostridium difficile
    invades the intestinal lining and releases toxins that cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain