2.1 Heart Anatomy

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2.1 Heart Anatomy
2015-02-22 15:18:04

Heart Anatomy
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  1. Which cavity is the heart located in?
    Pericardial cavity
  2. Where is the pericardial cavity located within?
  3. What is inferior to the heart?
  4. What organ surrounds the heart?
  5. What's ventral to the heart
  6. What's caudal to the heart
    Spinal cord
  7. What's peculiar about the way the heart sits in situ ? (2)
    -It lays obliquely towards the left side

    -right side is pointed ventrally, while the left side is posterior
  8. At which intercostal space does the apex of the heart reach?
    At the fifth intercostal space
  9. What is the pericardium?
    Covering of the heart
  10. What is fibrous pericardium? (2)
    -Loose fitting sac of connective tissue around the heart

    -anchors it to the diaphragm below
  11. What is the serous pericardium? (2)
    Lines the inner fibrous as parietal

    Forms an external layer of the heart as visceral
  12. What is the pericardial cavity?
    • Space between the layers of the serious pericardium
    • *serous and parietal
  13. What is pericarditis?
    Inflamed pericardium
  14. What occurs in pericarditis
    -serious surfaces are toughen leading to friction between heart and pericardial sac
  15. Early sign of pericarditis?
  16. What can lead to pericarditis lead to?
    Adhesions that can impede heart activity
  17. What do serous membranes usually do>?
    • Secretes serous fluid into spaces for lubrication
    • *without it, inflammation will occur
  18. What does the phrenic nerve do to heart?
    -innervates the pericardium which is the reason why we feel angina
  19. What does vagus join close to the heart?
    A cardiac plexus which is close to the heart bc it is a parasympathetic fiber
  20. Layers of the heart wall) Epicardium
    Visceral layer of the serious pericardium
  21. Layers of the heart wall) myocardium
    • Heart muscle
    • *contractile cardiac cells
  22. Layers of the heart wall) endocardium
    Simple squamous cell layer inside the heart  that acts like epidermis by constantly replacing damaged cells.
  23. Where are specialized non contractile cardiac muscle cells located? (electrical cells)
    • subendocardial
    • *b/w myocardium & endocardium
  24. Intrinsic cardiac conduction system) important conduction parts (5)
    -Sinoatrial node

    -atrioventricular node

    -atrioventricular bundle

    -left & right bundle branch

    -purkinje's fibers
  25. Intrinsic cardiac conduction system) Moderator band
    Deliver impulses from right bundle branch within intraventicular septum out to the margin of the right ventricle
  26. What are intercalated discs?
    Gap junctions that allow ion flow between cardiac cells
  27. 2 similarities that myocardium has to skeletal and smooth muscle?
    It is striated like a skeletal muscle but smooth like a smooth msucl;e
  28. What are the 4 chamber of the heart?
    -2 atria

    -2 ventricles
  29. Main function of atria?
    Received blood
  30. Main function of ventricles
    Pumps blood away
  31. Main function of veins
    Return blood to atria
  32. Main function of arteries
    Take blood away from ventricles
  33. The right side of the heart has...
    Low O2
  34. The left side of the heart has...
    High O2
  35. Right atria receives low O2 blood from..(2)
    Superior and inferior vena cava
  36. Right ventricle pumps blood away from the hearth through
    Pulmonary artery
  37. Blood with oxygen comes back into left atria by
    Pulmonary veins
  38. Blood is pumped out of left ventricle to body thru which major artery?
  39. What is located between RA & RV?
    atrialventricular septa
  40. What does intraventricular septum separate?
    RV and LV
  41. What does the interatrial septa separate?
    LA and LV
  42. Which has thicker walls between RV or LV ? ad why?
    LV because it has to create enough pressure to pump blood throughout the body
  43. What does the atrioventricular groove separate?
    RA & RV
  44. What does the inter-ventricular groove separate?
    LV & RV
  45. External) what are auricles?
    Muscular pouches with each atria that act as blood reservoirs
  46. What are the 3 veins that deliver de-oxygenated blood into the RA?
    -superior and inferior vena cava

    -coronary sinus
  47. IVC) blood flow mechanism
    IVC returns blood to heart from areas below the diaphragm
  48. SVC) blood flow
    SVC returns blood from everything superior to diaphragm
  49. CS) blood flow
    Returns blood to heart which the heart muscle itself has used for nutrition
  50. How many pulmonary veins deliver oxygenated blood into the left atrium?
    • 4
    • * 2 Left and 2 right
  51. Color coding on veins of the heart and schematics (2)
    -blue = low O2

    -red= high O2
  52. Great vessels of the heart) Pulmonary trunk (2)
    -exits right ventricle

    • -delivers low O2 blood to the pulmonary circuit
    • *lungs
  53. Great vessels of the heart) Aorta (2)
    -exits left ventricle

    -delivers high O2 blood to systematic circuit
  54. What are pulmonary trunk and aorta?
  55. 4 heart valves) what are the 4 heart valves


    -pulmonary valve in pulmonary trunk

    -aortic valve in aorta
  56. 4 heart valves) which are the 2 valves on the atrio-ventricular

  57. 4 heart valves) what side is the tricuspid on the atrioventricular
    Right side
  58. 4 heart valves) bicuspid, what side of atrio-ventriocular is it on?
    • Its on the left
    • *aka mitral valve
  59. 4 heart valves) which 2 valves are on the semi-lunar ?
    -pulmonary valve in pulmonary trunk

    -aortic valve in the aorta
  60. AV valves mechanism of action
    Convey blood down to the ventricles from atria after atrial contraction and cusps of the AV valves slam shut to prevent regurgitation of blood back up into atria
  61. What creates the lube sound?
    The sound of the 2 AV valves slamming shut
  62. Semi-lunar valves mechanism of action
    open during ventricular contraction cycles to allow blood to eject out of the ventricles & into the great vessels. Once blood comes out the semi-lunar valves slam shut to prevent back flow
  63. What creates the dub sound?
    Semi-lunar valves shutting down
  64. Right atrium) what is the coronary sinus opening?
    This is where coronary sinus vein delivers deoxygenated blood to the heart
  65. What does Crista terminallis serve as?
    Origin of the pectinate muscles
  66. Right ventricle) Papillary muscle
    Finger-like cone shaped muscle projection which anchored to a single cusp of the AV valve by the way of chordae tendinae
  67. Which direction do cusps of AV valves fall under?
    Hang down towards the ventricle like a bar door
  68. How many papillary muscles and chordinae does right ventricle have?
    3 and 3 because only one papillary muscle attaches to a cusp and since tricuspid is located there therefore 3
  69. What does moderator bond deliver?
    Impulses generated by P.M cells from right bundle branch out to ventricle thru perkinje fibers
  70. Left ventricle) trabeculae carnae is analogous to
    pectinate muscles
  71. Which side does semi-lunar valves face?
    Upwards to prevent back flow
  72. Pathway of blood through the heart, what's important bout the way they fill and contract?
    Both sides of the heart fill and contract simultaneously
  73. Left ventricular myocardium is ______ than the right ventricle?
    • Thicker because of the pressure difference between blood circuits
    • *systematic circuit is greater than pulmonary circuit so that requires left ventricle to contract much harder to pump blood through
  74. What is the coronary circulation?
    • Blood supply to the heart itself
    • *feeds itself
  75. Coronary circulation ) on what groove does the coronary arteries surround the heart
    atrialventricular artery
  76. Coronary circulation ) where does it begin?
    At the base of aorta as right and left coronary arteries
  77. Coronary circulation ) left coronary artery bifrocates immediately ito
    Circumflex artery & anterior inter-ventricular artery
  78. Coronary circulation ) what does right coronary artery give off?
    Marginal artery
  79. Coronary circulation ) circumflex artery continues to anastomoses (junction of arteries) with
    Right coronary artery in posterior side of the heart
  80. LAD, feeds the cells of
    Both ventricles anteriorly with oxygenated blood
  81. Cardiac veins) these veins accompany
    The coronary arteries but called cardiac
  82. Where do all cardiac blood eventually drained into
    Coronary sinus which dump it into right atrium
  83. Cardiac veins) the great cardiac vein runs alongside
    Anterior inter-ventricular artery (LAD)
  84. Cardiac veins) the middle cardiac vein runs alongside
    Posterior inter-ventricular artery
  85. Cardiac veins) small cardiac vein runs alongside with
    Marginal artery
  86. Structural difference between veins and arteries
    -veins collapse often and arteries don't because they are more muscular
  87. Function of WBC
    • -part of immune system to fight infections & disease
    • *leukocytes
  88. Function of platelets
    Blood clotting
  89. Function of RBC
    Delivers oxygen to cells
  90. Fetal circulation) what's the issue with lungs and how do we get around this? (2)
    -In the womb, lungs are not functional therefore placenta with help of umbilical cord takes care of this

    -Cord carries rich oxygenated blood from placenta to the fetus through umbilical veins
  91. Fetal circulation) blood circulation from lower body to ivc
    -umbilical vein passes thru ductus venosus within liver & enters inferior vena cava to mix there with venous blood returning to RA. Instead of pouring to RV & go to nonfunctional lungs, it is shunted from RA to LA through foremen oval hole in intro-atrial wall. Once in LA, mix blood is pumped into aorta
  92. Fetal circulation ) blood from upper body
    Enters RA thru superior vena cava. Blood will flow down to RV bc of flow of gravity. RV will contract to send it to the pulmonary trunk. It will be directed to Aorta thru ducts arteriorsis, which is a duct between 2 arteries. Once in aorta, mix blood is delivered throughout the body thru systematic circuit . Low o2 is sent back to placenta thru umbilical arteries. Tissues in unborn receives mix to low O2 blood
  93. Look at fetal circulation schematics
  94. Summary of fetal structure changes) Following birth, umbilical vein
    Round ligament of liver
  95. Summary of fetal structure changes) Following birth, ductus venosus
    ligamentum venosum
  96. Summary of fetal structure changes) Following birth, foremen ovale
    Fossa ovalis
  97. Summary of fetal structure changes) Following birth, ductus arteriosus
    ligamentum arteriosum