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Where is the hindbrain located?
at the posterior portion of the brain
What combines to make up the brain stem?
- Hindbrain structures
- Other central structures of the brain
Where is the medulla located?
- Just above the spinal cord
- Could be regarded as an enlarged extension of the spinal cord
What is the medulla responsible for?
Vital reflexes such as breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing
What do cranial nerves do?
They allow the medulla to control sensations from the head, muscle movements, in the head, and many parasympathetic outputs to the organs
- Lies on each side of the medulla (ventral and anterior)
- Along with the medulla, contains the reticular formation and raphe system
- Works in conjunction to increase arousal and readiness of other parts of the brain
What do the ascending and descending portions of the reticular formation do?
- Descending: one of the several brain areas that control the motor areas of the spinal cord
- Ascending: sends output to much of the cerebral cortex, selectively increasing arousal and attention
What does the raphe system of the pons do?
Also sends axons to much of the forebrain, modifying the brains readiness to respond to stimuli
Where is the cerebellum located?
Located in the hindbrain with many deep folds
What does the cerebellum do?
- Helps regulate motor movement, balance, and coordination
- Also important for shifting attention between auditory and visual stimuli