Chapter 1: General Principles of Biomechanics

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Author:
dmshaw9
ID:
296525
Filename:
Chapter 1: General Principles of Biomechanics
Updated:
2015-02-22 15:56:49
Tags:
Biomechanics Principles
Folders:
NPTE Review
Description:
Chapter 1: Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System
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  1. First Class Levers
    • 2 forces are applied on either side of an axis
    • Exampe = contraction of triceps at elbow joint
  2. Second Class Levers
    • 2 forces are applied on one side of an axis 
    • The load/resistance lies between effort force and axis of rotation
    • Few examples in the human body (toe raises)
  3. Third Class Levers
    • 2 forces are applied on one side of an axis
    • Force/effort lies closer to the axis than the resistance
    • Most muscles in the body are 3rd class levers (elbow flexion)
  4. Convex-Concave Rule Applied to the Spine
    • Convex rule applies to the atlanto-occipital joint
    • Below the 2nd vertebra, the concave rule applies
  5. Normal Physiologic End-Feel
    • Soft: soft tissue approximation
    • Firm: capsular & ligamentous stretching
    • Hard: when bone/cartilage meet
  6. Pathologic End-Feel
    • Boggy: edema, joint swelling
    • Firm: with decreased elasticity = fibrosis of soft tissue
    • Rubbery: muscle spasm
    • Empty: loose, then vary hard. Associated with muscle guarding or pt avoiding painful part of range
    • Hypermobility: end-feel at later time than opposite side
  7. Grading of Accessory Joint Movement
    • 0 = Ankylosed
    • 1 = Considerable hypomobility
    • 2 = Slight hypomobility
    • 3 = Normal
    • 4 = Slight hypermobility
    • 5 = Considerable hypermobility
    • 6 = Unstable

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