Weathering

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Author:
Cheetah13
ID:
296534
Filename:
Weathering
Updated:
2015-02-22 20:10:25
Tags:
Gabel weathering
Folders:
Test 2
Description:
Geology Test 2
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  1. What is weathering?
    Weathering is the process that breaks down rocks exposed at earth's surface (water and air)
  2. Name the types of weathering
    • Physical weathering
    • chemical weathering
  3. Name the types of physical weathering
    • Freeze-thaw process
    • pressure release process
  4. How does the freeze thaw process work? and what is produced?
    • ice crystals grow within the cracks in the rocks
    • ice volume is 9% greater then water
    • growth of the ice crystals exerts pressure on sides of cracks
    • widens cracks and may break off pieces of the rocks
    • Produces talus
  5. What is talus?
    bunch of jagged blocks of rocks accumulated together
  6. Example of a talus
    Rocky mountains outside of Aspen
  7. how does the pressure release process work? What is produced?
    • rocks under the crust contain pressure that comes from the weight of overlying rock
    •  rocks underground are under pressure (lithostatic pressure) and rocks are compressed.
    • when rocks are exposed at the surface they expand and cracks (joints)
    • produce exfoliation or sheeting
  8. Name an example of pressure release process
    An example of pressure release process is yosemita national park
  9. Name the types of chemical weathering processes
    • Hydrolysis
    • dissolution
    • oxidation
  10. What is exfoliation?
    Exfoliation is thin, parallel, curved to face and peeling away
  11. What is sheeting?
    Sheeting is closely spaced joints
  12. ________ is the most important chemical weathering agent
    water
  13. Most surface water is slightly ________ because_________ in earths atmosphere dissolves in water to form ________
    acidic; carbon dioxide; carbonic acid
  14. Most rain water is at least a little _______
    acidic
  15. What is hydrolysis?
    Hydrolysis is the reaction between minerals in rock and water that produces a solid product (new secondary mineral) and dissolves products
  16. Name an example of hydrolysis
    AN example of hydrolysis is when water reacts with feldspar and many other mafic silicate minerals to produce clay minerals and dissolved products: 

    KFsp + acidic water + water=clay mineral + ions in solution
  17. What is dissolution?
    Even slightly acidic water reacts with a mineral and all products are dissolved ions
  18. Name an example of dissolution
    An example of dissolution is when calcite reacts with acidic water; the products are calcium and bicarbonate ions dissolved in water

    calcite + carbonic acid = ions dissolved in water
  19. What is oxidation?
    Oxygen in water reacts with iron (or sulfur or magnesium) in rocks to form iron oxides (or compounds with oxidized sulfur or magnesium)
  20. Name an example of oxidation
    Olivine oxidizes to form hematite ( a secondary mineral)

    olivine + oxygen = hematite + ions in water
  21. How is dissolution simplier then hydrolysis?
    It simplier because no secondary mineral is formed
  22. Some rocks weather faster than others because the minerals in them are less resistant to weathering

    a) True
    b) False
    a) True
  23. Silicate minerals with more Si-O bonds are more resistant to weathering.

    a) True
    b) False
    a) True
  24. Those with fewer Si-O bonds are more resistant to weather

    a) True
    b) False
    b) False
  25. How easily do mafic silicates weather?

    A) resistant to weathering
    B) more resistant to weathering
    C) easy to weather in a humid climate
    D) easily weathered
    D) easily weathered
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. How easily do quartz weather?

    A) resistant to weathering
    B) easily weathered
    C) most resistant to weathering
    D) easy to weather in a humid climate
    C) most resistant to weathering
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. How easily do calcite weather?

    A) easily to weather in a humid climate
    B) most resistant to weathering
    C) resistant to weathering
    D) easily weathered
    A) easily to weather in a humid climate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. How easily do mafic igneous rocks weather?

    A) resistant to weathering
    B) easy to weather
    C) most resistant to weathering
    D) easily to weather in a humid climate
    B) easy to weather
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. How easily do felsic igneous rocks weather?

    A) more resistant to weathering
    B) resistant to weathering
    C) easy to weather
    D) easily to weather in a humid climate
    A) more resistant to weathering
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. How easily do sandstone weather?

    A) easy to weather
    B) easily to weather in a humid climate
    C)  usually resistant to weathering because they contain alot of quartz 
    D) more resistant to weathering
    C)  usually resistant to weathering because they contain alot of quartz
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. How easily do shale weather?

    A) more resistant to weathering
    B)  usually resistant to weathering because they contain alot of quartz 
    C) easy to weather
    D) easily to weather in a humid climate
    C) easy to weather
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. How easily do limestone weather?

    A) easily to weather in a humid climate
    B) more resistant to weathering
    C)  usually resistant to weathering because they contain alot of quartz 
    D) easy to weather
    A) easily to weather in a humid climate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. What are other factors that influence the extent of weathering? (name in order of importance)
    Climate, Organisms, time
  34. Chemical weathering is faster in _____ climate, and slow in ____ climate
    wet, dry
  35. _______ and ____ help expose more rock to weathering
    • burrowing organisms
    • plant roots
  36. Shale forms from lithification of ________.
    Mud
  37. What is the main cause of chemical weathering?
    water reacts with minerals in rock
  38. what are the processes that act to lithify sediments during diagenesis?
    compaction and cementation
  39. true or false shale easy to weather in any climate
    True
  40. Planar lamination is commonly found in sands deposited _____.

    A) on coral reefs
    B) at the edge of a melting glacier
    C) in deep parts of lakes
    D) on beaches
    D) on beaches
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Sedimentary rocks provide geologists with information about _____.

    A) the location of ancient divergent plate boundaries
    B) the processes that were occurring on Earth's surface in the past
    C) conditions deep in the crust along plate boundaries
    D) all of the above
    B) the processes that were occurring on Earth's surface in the past
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which type of rock would form from deposition on a coral reef?
    limestone
  43. Which of the following would form if deposits of a desert dune were lithhified?

    A) well-sorted sandstone
    B) poorly-sorted sandstone
    C) shale
    D) conglomerate
    A) well-sorted sandstone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Weathering proceeds faster in a ____ climate
    Humid
  45. Physical and chemical weathering never act in the same location.

    True or false
    False

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