alpha 1-4 glycosidic linkages with branches beginning at alpha 1-6
What is glycogen?
Produced by animals
Polymer of glucose
Alpha 1-4 glycosidic linkages with alpha 1-6
more branches than amylopectin
What does glycogen store?
Excess glucose in muscles and liver cells
When is glycogen hydrolyzed?
when glucose levels are low in the blood.
What is cellulose?
Produced by plants
Polymer of glucose
Straight chains of ß – glucose
Every other monomer is inverted to form glycosidic links
Hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymer strands
produces tight bundles (microfibrils)
Where is cellulose found?
In cell walls
What is Chitin?
polymer of special glucose molecules that have nitrogen groups attached to C2
makes up arthropod exoskeletons
can be pigmented
What is saturated fat? And examples.
raises blood cholesterol
foods from animals (meat, milk and other dairy products made from whole milk)
Plants that contain high amounts of saturated fatty acids include coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil (often called tropical oils) and
Why is saturated fat solid?
hydrogenation The process changes a liquid oil, naturally high in unsaturated fatty acids, to a more solid and saturated form of fat. The greater the degree of hydrogenation, the moresaturated the fat becomes.
Unsaturated fats lower...?
blood cholesterol levels
Where are Polyunsaturated fats found?
in liquid oils of vegetable origin, such as safflower, sesame, sunflower and corn oil and in many nuts
Where are monounsaturated fats found?
Canola and olive oils, avocados and some nuts
Where are Omega- 3 fats found?
Omega-3 fats lower...?
What is a trans-fat?
man-made form of unsaturated fat
What is a Nucleic Acid?
Used to store hereditary information
Can produce identical copies of themselves and therefore allows organisms to reproduce
A Nucleotide contains:
1 phosphate group
1 sugar (DNA deoxyribose, RNA ribose)
1 nitrogenous base
5 types of Nitrogenous bases
thymine (DNA only),
uracil (RNA only)
What is a protein made up of?
it is a polymer made up of a long chain of amino acids