Biology Exam 1
Card Set Information
Biology Exam 1
"Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution"
1831, HMS Beagle, 5 year voyage
1. Species change over time.
2. Divergent species share a common ancestor.
3. The process that produces the change is natural selection.
Alfred Russel Wallace
Proposed similar explanations for natural selection
Paper from Darwin and Wallace published in 7/1/1858 to Linnean Society of London
The Origin of Species
Published An Essay on the Principle of Population in 1838
Populations of all species have potential for rapid increase but it does not occur
The process by which characteristics that are useful evolve
Rock Pocket Mouse
Evolved over time to have colors that coordinate with their environment
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed. Populations adapt to their environment.
Segment of DNA that codes for a trait
Different form of a gene
The physical expression of a gene. I.e eye color
The allele combination of a trait. I.e Bb.
Both alleles the same. BB. bb.
Alleles different. Bb
Local interbreeding groups
Model in which allele frequency does not change. Null hypothesis.
-Population size infinite
-No gene flow-no in or out of population
-Natural selection not a factor
Results from random changes in allele frequencies.
Can influence frequencies of alleles that do not effect survival and repro.
Population reduced to small number of individuals
Types of Selection
Directional-Shifts toward one extreme of traits and away from the other extreme
Disruptive-Shifts towards both extremes and away from the average.
Stabilizing-Shifts toward average and away from extremes.
Natural selection that favors traits that improve repro
Biological species concept:
Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations, which are reproductively isolated from other groups.
Reproductive Isolation-Prezygotic Barriers
Temporal- Time of breeding is different
Behavioral-Different mating style
Gametic-Gametes do not survive
Hybrids cannot reproduce further
Population is separated by physical barrier. They reintegrate but can no longer reproduce with each other.
Established nomenclature system
Rapid diversification occurred during this period
Have FUR and MAMMARY GLANDS
Live in extreme environments
: produce methane
: no cell wall, thermophili
: live in sulfur springs, HOT, ACIDOTIC
Eukaryotes that are neither plants, animals, or fungi
Reproduction, most are asexual and sexual
Secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients
Absorb nutrients from dead organic matter
Absorb nutrients from living host
Live in intimate association with another organism that benefits both organisms
Fungi and photosynthetic organism, mutualistic relationship
Plant Vascular Tissue
Xylem-Takes water and minerals up from soil
Phloem-Takes products to roots for storage
Prehistoric fish that was thought to be extinct.
Rediscovered in 1938
Existed before reptiles
Reproduction tied to water
Skin must stay moist
Can live on land
External or internal fertilization
Heteroptroph-Energy from food
Can survive on land away from water
Hard shell eggs
Kidneys secrete concentrated urine to prevent dehydration
Transports water and minerals
Outer covering of plant
Carries out photosynthesis and provides support
Numerous in young plants with thin flexible walls
Photosynthetic with many chloroplats
Store starch and lipids
Thick cell walls
Flexible, but provide support
Have thickened secondary walls
Provide strong support
Fibrids and sclerids
Scattered vascular tissue
Pollen with one opening
Floral organs in multiples of three
Vascular tissue organized in ring
Pollen with three openings
Floral organs in multiple of four or five
Vascular plants with seds enclosed in modified leaves called carpals
Stems and leaves, photosynthesis
Explains movement of water up stem to leaves and out
Angiosperm Sexual Repro
Flowers contain the sex organs