Biology Exam 1

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Biology Exam 1
2015-02-22 18:11:05

Exam 1
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  1. "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution"
    Theodosius Dobzhansky
  2. Darwin's Voyage
    1831, HMS Beagle, 5 year voyage
  3. Darwin's Propositions
    • 1. Species change over time.
    • 2. Divergent species share a common ancestor.
    • 3. The process that produces the change is natural selection.
  4. Alfred Russel Wallace
    • Naturalist
    • Proposed similar explanations for natural selection
    • Paper from Darwin and Wallace published in 7/1/1858 to Linnean Society of London
  5. Darwin's Book
    • The Origin of Species
    • Published 1859
  6. Thomas Malthus
    • Economist
    • Published An Essay on the Principle of Population in 1838
    • Populations of all species have potential for rapid increase but it does not occur
  7. Adaptation
    The process by which characteristics that are useful evolve
  8. Rock Pocket Mouse
    Evolved over time to have colors that coordinate with their environment
  9. Population
    A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed. Populations adapt to their environment.
  10. Gene
    Segment of DNA that codes for a trait
  11. Allele
    Different form of a gene
  12. Phenotype
    The physical expression of a gene. I.e eye color
  13. Genotype
    The allele combination of a trait. I.e Bb.
  14. Homozygous
    Both alleles the same. BB. bb.
  15. Heterozygous
    Alleles different. Bb
  16. Mendelian Populations
    Local interbreeding groups
  17. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
    • Model in which allele frequency does not change. Null hypothesis.
    • -Mating random
    • -Population size infinite
    • -No gene flow-no in or out of population
    • -No mutation
    • -Natural selection not a factor
  18. Genetic Drift
    • Results from random changes in allele frequencies.
    • Can influence frequencies of alleles that do not effect survival and repro.
  19. Population Bottleneck
    Population reduced to small number of individuals
  20. Types of Selection
    • Directional-Shifts toward one extreme of traits and away from the other extreme
    • Disruptive-Shifts towards both extremes and away from the average.
    • Stabilizing-Shifts toward average and away from extremes.
  21. Sexual Selection
    Natural selection that favors traits that improve repro
  22. Ernst Mayr
    • 1940
    • Biological species concept:
    • Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations, which are reproductively isolated from other groups.
  23. Reproductive Isolation-Prezygotic Barriers
    • Habitat-Live separately
    • Temporal- Time of breeding is different
    • Behavioral-Different mating style
    • Mechanical-Organs incompatible
    • Gametic-Gametes do not survive
  24. Postzygotic Barriers
    Hybrids cannot reproduce further
  25. Allopathic Speciation
    Population is separated by physical barrier. They reintegrate but can no longer reproduce with each other.
  26. Carolus Linnaeus
    • Established nomenclature system
    • Genus species
  27. Cambrian Explosion
    Rapid diversification occurred during this period
  28. Hierarchial Naming
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  29. Mammals
  30. Archaea
    • Live in extreme environments
    • Methanogens: produce methane
    • Thermoplasma: no cell wall, thermophili
    • Sulfobus: live in sulfur springs, HOT, ACIDOTIC
  31. Bacteria
    • Spherical
    • Rod Shaped
    • Spiral
  32. Protists
    Eukaryotes that are neither plants, animals, or fungi
  33. Protist Classification
    • Mobile-Cillia, flagella
    • Amoeboid motion-pseudopods
    • Imotile-stationary

    Reproduction, most are asexual and sexual
  34. Absorptive Heterotrophy
    Secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients
  35. Saprobes
    Absorb nutrients from dead organic matter
  36. Parasites
    Absorb nutrients from living host
  37. Mutualists
    Live in intimate association with another organism that benefits both organisms
  38. Lichen
    Fungi and photosynthetic organism, mutualistic relationship
  39. Plant Vascular Tissue
    • Xylem-Takes water and minerals up from soil
    • Phloem-Takes products to roots for storage
  40. Coelacanth
    • Prehistoric fish that was thought to be extinct.
    • Rediscovered in 1938
  41. Amphibians
    • Existed before reptiles
    • Reproduction tied to water
    • Skin must stay moist
    • Can live on land
    • External or internal fertilization
  42. Animals
    • Eukaryotic
    • Multicellular
    • Heteroptroph-Energy from food
    • Internal digestion
    • Movement
  43. Reptiles
    • Can survive on land away from water
    • Better lungs
    • Hard shell eggs
    • Internal fertilizaton
    • Scaly skin
    • Kidneys secrete concentrated urine to prevent dehydration
  44. Roots
    • Storage
    • Absorption
    • Anchor
  45. Vascular Tissue
    Transports water and minerals
  46. Dermal Tissue
    Outer covering of plant
  47. Ground Tissue
    Carries out photosynthesis and provides support
  48. Parenchyma Cells
    • Numerous in young plants with thin flexible walls
    • Photosynthetic with many chloroplats
    • Store starch and lipids
  49. Collenchyma Cells
    • Thick cell walls
    • Elongate shape
    • Flexible, but provide support
  50. Sclerenchyma Cells
    • Have thickened secondary walls
    • Provide strong support
    • Fibrids and sclerids
  51. Monocots
    • One cotyledon
    • Veins parallel
    • Scattered vascular tissue
    • Fibrous roots
    • Pollen with one opening
    • Floral organs in multiples of three
  52. Eudicots
    • Two cotyledons
    • Netlike veins
    • Vascular tissue organized in ring
    • Main root
    • Pollen with three openings
    • Floral organs in multiple of four or five
  53. Angiosperms
    Vascular plants with seds enclosed in modified leaves called carpals
  54. Vegetative Organs
    • Roots
    • Stems
    • Leaves
  55. Shoot System
    Stems and leaves, photosynthesis
  56. Root System
  57. Transpiration-Cohesion-Tension
    Explains movement of water up stem to leaves and out
  58. Angiosperm Sexual Repro
    Flowers contain the sex organs