Final Exam Tests
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Which type of gland secretes a substance that is secreted into the stomach?
Hormones are transported from their source gland to their target gland through
Which of the following is not a major endocrine gland?
Steroid and steroid-like hormones are characterized by
- A base structure of four fused organic rings
- By being able to turn genes on or off, they bind to a receptor in the nucleus
Hormones affect the activity of selected cells because
They bind to specific receptors that are located only on their target cells
Hormone second messengers may
- Promote the synthesis of specific proteins
- Activate enzymes
- Initiate secretion of hormones
- Include cAMP
- Regulate cellular responses to hormones
- Increase the production of cAMP in a cell
- Cause contraction of the smooth muscles in the uterus
- Relax smooth muscles of blood vessels
- Promote inflammation of injured tissue
Negative feedback mechanisms
Cause the production of a hormone to increase if the process controlled by the hormone decreases
Which of the following glands is located in the brain?
Stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones
The hypothalamus receives information about the internal environment of the body mostly from
The nervous system
Each hormone produced by the hypothalamus
Affects a specific subpopulation of cells in the anterior pituitary gland
Transport blood from one capillary bed to another capillary bed
The posterior pituitary gland releases hormones produced
In the hypothalamus
Controls the growth of muscle tissue
Controls the production of mil
Production is inhibited by somatostatin
Promotes the secretion of sex hormones in both males and females
Stimulates growth of the thyroid gland
Production is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Production is stimulated by growth hormone-releasing hormone
Which of the following hormones is produced by the anterior pituitary gland?
The secretion of growth hormone
- Varies during the day
- Is greatest during sleep
- Is affected by nutritional state of the person
Which of the following hormones is/are produced by the adrenal medulla?
The functions of blood include
- Transportation of vital substances
- Distribution of heat
- Linking the internal and external environments
- Maintaining the stability of interstitial fluids
The amount of blood in a body varies
- With changes in fluid concentration
- With changes in electrolyte concentration
- With body size
The “formed elements” in blood include
Red blood cells
Which of the following conditions can affect red blood cell counts in a person?
- Living in Colorado versus living in Galveston
- Training for a marathon
Which pairing of stage of development and location of red blood cell production is correct?
Embryonic development – Red bone marrow
Fetal development – Liver
Infancy – Adrenal gland
Childhood – Yolk sac
Adulthood – Spleen
Fetal development – Liver
Which element is required for synthesis of hemoglobin?
An individual red blood cell remains in circulation for
About 4 months
Sickle cell disease (anemia) is characterized by
Abnormaly shaped red blood cells
When damaged red blood cells are removed from circulation,
- The iron is recycled into new hemoglobin
- The remainder of the heme molecule is converted to bilirubin and biliverdin
- The bilirubin and biliverdin are excreted as bile pigments
Which of the following are antigens found on the surface of red blood cells and involved in the compatibility of blood between a donor and a recipient?
- A antigens
- B antigens
- Rh antigens
The most common blood group in the United States is
Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs when
An Rh negative mother’s blood is exchanged with her second or subsequent Rh-positive fetus’s blood
The blood group of universal blood donors is
White blood cells
- Are involved in protecting the body against disease
- Are produced in response to stimulation by hormones
Which of the following is not a characteristic used to determine the type of white blood cell being observed?
Lifespan of the cell
Which types of white blood cells are phagocytic?
As a response to bacterial invasion,
- Tissues become red
- Tissues swell
- White blood cells move rapidly to the location of the bacteria
- White blood cells, bacteria, and damaged cells accumulate to form pus
The most numerous leukocytes
Elevated in parasitic worm infections
Cytoplasm stains deep blue
May live for many years
Largest blood cell
Albumin is a plasma protein that
Helps maintain colloid osmotic pressure
Nonprotein nitrogenous substances in the blood include
Which of the following is not an electrolyte carried in the blood plasma?
Oxygen (Note: This is the only one that is not an electrolyte.)
Hemostasis refers to
The stoppage of bleeding
Blood loss after injury to a blood vessel is minimized by
- Spasms of the blood vessels
- Formation of a platelet plug
- Coagulation of the blood
- The secretion of hormones is precisely regulated.
- Oxytocin is an example of a peptide hormone.
- Antidiuretic hormone is also known as vasopressin.
- Thyroxine and triiodothyronine regulate metabolism.
- Calcitonin helps control the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ion in the blood.
- Parathyroid hormone stimulates the release of calcium from bones.
- Endocrine glands decrease in size as the body ages.
- Granulocytes are descended from myeloid stem cells
- Steroid hormones activate second messengers that perform the metabolic function controlled by that hormone.
- The anterior pituitary gland is also known as the neurohypophysis
- Norepinephrine is an example of a peptide hormone
- Thymosins regulate circadian (day/night) cycles.
- Physical stress, but not psychological stress, induces the hypothalamus to signal other endocrine glands to respond.
- Epinephrine is responsible for long-term adjustment to stress.
- Hematopoietic stem cells can divide to produce any cell in the body.
- The hormone that stimulates red blood cell production is erythromycin.
- Agglutination is the formation of a blood clot after injury to a blood vessel.
- Diapedesis is the process describing the movement of a cell by creating extensions called pseudopodia
The purpose of the endocrine system is to maintain
Reticulocytes are immature
Red blood cells
After tissue damage, a long series of steps occurs in the formation of a blood clot. In the final step, fibrinogen is converted to ________ and forms a fiber mesh trapping the red blood cells in the clot.
An __________ is an abnormal blood clot moving through the blood vessels.
Name one of the hormones secreted by the pancreas and responsible for controlling the blood-glucose concentration.
Give two characteristics of red blood cells.
Biconcave discs, no nucleus, no mitochondria, large surface area, 7.5 µm diameter, 2.0 µm thick, thin near the center and thicker near the edges, approximately 1/3 hemoglobin, transport O2
Give two factors that inhibit formation of blood clots.
Smooth lining of blood vessels, heparin in the blood or as a treatment, antithrombin, fibrin threads adsorbing thrombin, prostacyclin (inhibits adherence of platelets to blood vessel walls), coumadin, large cut/gash that bleeds heavily, tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) dissolving clots, potentially an embolus breaking loose and reopening a vessel
Describe briefly one way that blood clots can be formed within intact blood vessels.
- Atherosclerosis – the accumulation of fatty deposits (plaque) in blood vessels causing narrowed lumens that can trap small clots (may progress to arteriosclerosis in which the blood vessel walls degenerate, lose elasticity, become hard, and may rupture)
- Slow blood flow – allows clotting factors to become more concentrated in a local area (may be due to inactivity, causes deep vein thrombosis)
- Agglutination due to infusion with incompatible blood
- Clot formation in a severed vessel would not qualify as an intact vessel, but a vessel with a slit in the side of the vessel may be interpreted as being intact. The above answers would be more appropriate.
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