Respiration 5 - Respiratory Processes in Acid/Base Balance

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Anonymous
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296600
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Respiration 5 - Respiratory Processes in Acid/Base Balance
Updated:
2015-02-23 09:56:07
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Respiration Acid Base
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Vet Med - Module 9
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  1. Define acidosis and alkalosis
    • Acidosis is a disease process which lowers the pH of the blood > acidaemia
    • Alkalosis is a disease process which raises the pH of the blood > alkalaemia
  2. What is the equation of the carbon dioxide buffer system?
    CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> HCO3- + H+
  3. Which part of the equation can be controlled by a) the kidneys b) respiration
    • a) HCO3-
    • b) CO2
  4. What is the normal blood pH range?
    7.37-7.42
  5. What is the blood pH range compatible with life?
    6.8-8.0
  6. What effect does driving the CO2 buffer equation (CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> HCO3- + H+)  to the right have on ph?
    It increases pH as more H+ ions are produced.  This can lead to respiratory acidosis
  7. Give examples as to why respiratory acidosis can occur?
    Respiratory failure, inadequate VA
  8. What effect does driving the CO2 buffer equation (CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> HCO3- + H+)  to the left have on ph?
    It decreases pH as there are less Hions present because they combine with HCO3-.  This can lead to respiratory alkalosis.
  9. Give examples as to why respiratory alkalosis can occur
    Hyperventilation, excessive Veg CNS excitment/disease
  10. Respiratory acid/base disorders involve altered ...?
    PCO2
  11. Describe the primary change in metabolic acidosis and any compensatory mechanisms that occur
    • Primary change - decreased HCO3-
    • Compensatory mechanisms - respiratory compensation consists of hyperventilation to lower PCO2.  Renal compensation consists of increased H+ excretion and HCO3- generation.
  12. Describe the primary change in metabolic alkalosis and any compensatory mechanisms that occur
    • Primary change - increased HCO3-
    • Compensatory mechanisms - respiratory compensation consists of hypoventilation to raise PCO2.  Renal compensation consists of decreased H+ excretion and increased HCO3- excretion.
  13. Describe the primary change in respiratory acidosis and any compensatory mechanisms that occur
    • Primary change - increased PCO2
    • Compensatory mechanisms - no respiratory compensation.  Renal compensation consists of increasing H+ excretion and HCO3- generation.
  14. Describe the primary change in respiratory alkalosis and any compensatory mechanisms that occur
    • Primary change - decrease in PCO2
    • Compensatory mechanisms - no respiratory compensation.  Renal compensation consists of decreasing Hexcretion and increasing HCO3- excretion.
  15. True or false: respiratory compensation takes longer to occur than renal compensation?
    False: respiratory compensation is immediate whereas renal compensation takes a while for the necessary enzyme processes to start to facilitate any changes.

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